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Numerous Indian texts were translated to English and were widely read all over the world

The most significant feature of Indian literature is its diversity which is due to the presence of the country's variety of languages and sub-cultures. And one of the greatest genres of Indian literature is its poetry which can be traced back to the sixth century B.C. From Vedic Sanskrit poems to Urdu poetry that flourished under the Mughal Empire. Since the early 19th century when the Britishers colonized the country, numerous Indian texts were translated to English and were widely read all over the world. . India has historically been the land of notable poets whose exemplary work is world-renowned. Be it romance, sadness, happiness, and all-out other emotions are beautifully described in the pure form of Indian poetry.

Kalidasa

Kalidasa is one of the greatest Sanskrit poets of India from the 5th century. He is regarded as one of the greatest poets of all time and he has had a major impact on not only Indian poetry but on world literature. Although most details of his life are subject to speculation. His two epic works of poetry, Kumārasambhava ("Birth of the War God") and Raghuvaṃśa ("Dynasty of Raghu" ) are among the most revered in Indian literature to this day. His plays and poems are primarily based on the Vedas, Puranas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The drama "Shakuntala" written by Kalidasa was the first Indian drama ever it was later translated into English by Sir William Jones.


Kabir

A saint respected and admired by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs, Kabir was a towering figure in 15th century India. He penned down all his poems in the Hindi language and mixing some bits from various dialects including Avadhi, Braj and Bhojpuri. The themes he worked around were on various aspects of life and faith. He is known for being critical of religion – primarily Hinduism and Islam, and the various rituals that came with it. Kabir is most renowned for his Does that are still hugely popular in India and there is numerous reference to them in popular culture.

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Mirza Ghalib

Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan' popularly known as 'Mirza Ghalib' is one of the most influential poets of Urdu and the Persian language. He began writing at the tender age of 11 and was married by the age of 13. He spent his life writing poetry for patrons at the Mughal court. Although Ghalib wrote in several genres, he is most popular for his ghazals. Ghalib penned down his poetry reflecting on various topics such as philosophies, existentialism, mysteries of life and many more.

Amir Khusrow

Amir Khusrow surrounded by young men 'Amir Khusrow' was popularly known as the Father of Urdu Literature for his poetry Wikimedia Commons


Born in 1253 Sufi Poet, 'Amir Khusrow' was popularly known as the Father of Urdu Literature for his poetry. He has been credited to create the 'qawwali' style in his songwriting. Amīr Khosrow's pentalogy "Khamsah" deals with general themes popular in Islāmic literature. In addition to his poetry, he is known for his several prose works, including the Khazāʾin al-futūḥ ("The Treasure-Chambers of the Victories"), also known by the title Tārīkh-e ʿAlāʾī ("The History of Ala").

Mirabai

A devotee of Lord Krishna, Mirabai was born in 1498 wrote poems exploring topics of divinity, mysticism, and love. She was born as a princess, granddaughter of Rao Dudaji, the third son of Rao Jodhaji, who established the kingdom of the Rathod Dynasty in Rajasthan, she left the kingdom to completely devote herself to Lord Krishna. Although there are no surviving original manuscripts that were penned down by her, as we recollect facts from the ancient time it is discovered that she had been known as a highly influential figure in poetry traditions

Mir Taqi Mir

Born in 1722 in Agra, Mir Taqi Mir entered the world of Urdu poetry at a time when it was considered to have been at its formative stage. His work explores themes of love and spirituality and is rich with pathos drawn from his tragedies including untimely deaths of family members – first his father, then his daughter, son, and wife. Mir Taqi Mir is remembered as Khuda-e-Sukhan which means 'God of Poetry'.

Sarojini Naidu

Sarojini Naidu was not only a highly influential poet of Modern India but she was also a highly regarded freedom fighter who served as the President of the Indian National Congress. She is known for her contributions to India's independence against the British. She is popularly called the "Nightingale of India". Her work explores themes such as love, death, patriotism, among others, her poetry has been highly influential and set the tone for modern Indian literary traditions. Her first collection of poems, the widely acclaimed The Golden Threshold, was published in 1905.

Sri Aurobindo Ghosh

Aurobindo Gosh is one of the few Indian poets who blended both western and eastern poetic sensibilities. His poetry revolved primarily on themes of spirituality and mortality, as well as involved commentaries on and translations of Vedas, Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. Later he became a spiritual reformer introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. "Life" and "The Golden Light" are a few of his popularly known works.

ALSO READ: 200,000-line Ancient Sanskrit poem and Hindu Epic Mahabharata offers Lessons for Modern War

Kamala Surayya

Born in 1934 in Kerala, Kamala Surayya is known for her one-time penned down a ipoem, "Madhavikutty". In this famous piece of writing, she talked about love, betrayal, female sexuality and politics. She was known to portray the women in her poems as human; with desires, pain and emotions just like men. Her writing consisted of vivid descriptions of menstruation, puberty, love, physical intimacy and much more. She is one of the boldest, fearless and among the most influential figures in Indian-English language poetry. Kamala Das (Surayya) has published five collections of poems. In all, she has to her credit more than 200 poems.

Rabindranath Tagore

Among the most influential and recognized figures from modern Indian literature, Tagore wrote poetry primarily in Bengali. He published his first major poetry collection, Bhanusimha Thakurer Padabali, at the age of 16. His best-known work in poetry, Gitanjali, was published in 1910. for which Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel prize for Literature. Tagore was the first Indian poet to achieve a permanent place within the canon of world literature. His poems express intense romantic and mystic sensibilities. He wasn't just a poet; he was also a composer of highly revered novels, dramas, short stories and even paintings. Tagore composed the national anthems of two nations, India as well as Bangladesh.

Keywords: Poetry, India, poets, Urdu, Persian, Hindi


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It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies.

Well, if you'll notice then the moon takes twenty-nine days to complete its lunar cycle, whereas women's menstrual cycle is generally 28 days! Coincidence? I think, not.

It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies. In fact, in ancient times it was said that the natural rhythm of women was to menstruate under a new moon and ovulate under a full moon.

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Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourised in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.

A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".

"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.

"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.

The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".

Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.


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Dozens of female high school and university students in Afghanistan have joined vocational centers to learn tailoring and cosmetology

Dozens of female high school and university students in Afghanistan have joined vocational centers to learn tailoring and cosmetology as the women and girls have been banned from school and university since the Taliban took over the country, Tolo News reported.

According to these girls, sitting at home is very difficult for them, therefore they are willing to learn a profession.

"It has been a couple of months that we are at home since schools and universities were closed. We have to learn a profession or a job because we can't sit like this at home," said Samira Sharifi, a student.

"I want to learn a profession for my future to help my family, we want our schools to be opened so that we can carry on with our education," said Mahnaz Ghulami, a student.

Most of the trainees in the vocational centres are students of high schools and universities.

After the closure of high schools and universities across Afghanistan, Herat female students have started gaining vocational training in the province.

"We have decided to learn tailoring along with our education," said Shaqaiq Ganji, a student.

"It's necessary for every woman to learn tailoring to help her family and her husband, especially in this bad economic situation," said Laili Sofizada, a teacher.

Due to the closure of schools and universities, the number of students in vocational centers doubled compared to recent years, the report added.

"Our classes had the capacity of 20 to 25 students but we increased it to 45 students, because most of the students have lost their spirit, and their schools and universities have closed," said Fatima Tokhi, director of technical and professional affairs at the Herat department of labour and social affairs.

The Labour and Social Affairs department of Herat said the department is working to provide more opportunities for Herat girls and women to learn vocational training.

"The art and professional sector and the kindergarten departments have started their activities, we support them and supervise their activities," said Mulla Mohammad Sabit, head of the labour and social affairs of Herat.

During the past two months, most of the women and girls who worked in state and private institutions lost their jobs and are trying to learn handicrafts and vocational training. (IANS/JB)


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