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Most Women in High-ranking Positions raised in similar Family Environment, says Study

In the future, there will be no female leaders. There will be just leaders - Sheryl Sandberg

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Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, accompanied by first lady Michelle Obama, greet supporters during a campaign rally in Winston-Salem, N.C., Oct. 27, 2016. Researcher Susan Madsen says there are striking similarities among powerful women across the globe. VOA
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November 1, 2016 : A victory by Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton next month would add one more name to the list of the fewer than two dozen female heads of state and prime ministers in the world. But the number of women in high-ranking positions — ministers, governors, parliament members and CEOs — is growing.

And despite the different cultural and political backgrounds among those powerful women, there are striking similarities among them, according to researcher Susan Madsen, who studies the development of prominent female leaders in the United States and other countries.

“I’ve done very in-depth interviews with some women leaders in Eastern and Central Europe, China and also in the Middle East,” said Madsen, at professor at Utah Valley University in Utah. “I’ve got very interesting similarities, actually, with all the women.”

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Politics at the dinner table

Female leaders are raised in a similar family environment, according to Madsen.

Susan Madsen, who teaches at Utah Valley University, says women's approach to leadership is different than men's. "Generally speaking, women are just more collaborative," she said.
Susan Madsen, who teaches at Utah Valley University, says women’s approach to leadership is different than men’s. “Generally speaking, women are just more collaborative,” she said. VOA

Susan Madsen, who teaches at Utah Valley University, says women’s approach to leadership is different than men’s. “Generally speaking, women are just more collaborative,” she said.

“The dinner table conversation was when many of these women found their voices,” Madsen said. “Their fathers encouraged them to talk about the issues, around what was happening in the town, whether it was politics, or issues in schools. They actually were able to really have good conversations where the children were not hushed, where the children were asked to share their opinions.”

They were also encouraged to listen thoughtfully to others.

“Either mothers or teachers or whatever helped them learn to reflect more effectively than a lot of other people,” she explained. “If you don’t know how to reflect well and learn from your mistakes, you’re just not going to progress and be a strong leader. [I] also found that all of the women actually were avid readers, and their parents encouraged them to read and learn.”

In addition, Madsen found that most prominent female leaders used to play team sports.

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“It’s actually quite amazing how much you can learn from team sports, including helping women and girls understand how to lose and be OK with that — know that you have to get up and try the next time, and how to work with the team,” she said. “The research says that women in the workplace sometimes are not good at supporting each other. They actually will cut each other down, but team sports actually help you develop positive relationships with other women and build them up.”

Distinctly female leadership style

Madsen, who teaches management classes, also serves as a director for several women’s advocacy organizations, including the Utah Women and Education Initiative and the Utah Women and Leadership Project.

She noted that women’s approach to leadership is different than men’s.

FILE - Young women listen to first lady Michelle Obama speak during a campaign rally for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton in Manchester, N.H., Oct. 13, 2016. Researcher Susan Madsen says women who have risen to positions of power have a common responsibility: leading by example, and inspiring the next generation of female leaders.
Young women listen to first lady Michelle Obama speak during a campaign rally for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton in Manchester, N.H., Oct. 13, 2016. Researcher Susan Madsen says women who have risen to positions of power have a common responsibility: leading by example, and inspiring the next generation of female leaders. VOA

FILE – Young women listen to first lady Michelle Obama speak during a campaign rally for Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton in Manchester, N.H., Oct. 13, 2016. Researcher Susan Madsen says women who have risen to positions of power have a common responsibility: leading by example, and inspiring the next generation of female leaders.

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“Generally speaking, women are just more collaborative,” she said. “They really listen better. Research has shown women actually observe nonverbal behaviors better than men. They see more subtle things that are happening and can adjust and adapt, and really bring other people into the conversations.

“Women ask different questions and talk about different things. So women in politics … we will bring up and have our voices on different issues than men. Those issues are things like education — and this is not just in the U.S. — health care, child care, family issues, social programs [and] homelessness. We still bring up, as women, other issues, but we tend to bring up some of those issues that really represent the society.”

Lessons from challenges, mistakes

But there are common obstacles that often keep women from playing a more prominent role in their societies, Madsen says.

“It doesn’t matter the country, it doesn’t matter the income level or cultures — different studies say women have less confidence than men,” Madsen said. “Also, women don’t aspire generally, as much as men, to be leaders. That comes from girls and women not seeing women as leaders. The social norm is that men should be leaders more than women, just because that’s how it’s been done for years.

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“Perfectionism in women can be a barrier, as well,” she added. “If a man has 50 to 60 percent of the knowledge and skills, he’ll put up that application, he’ll file to run. With women, the research says, it’s about 90 to 100 percent — that a woman wouldn’t apply for a job or file for public office unless she’s almost perfect.”

To change that mindset, Madsen says, societies have to remove some of the hurdles that stand in the way of female empowerment.

“We have to help girls and women understand the importance of becoming a leader,” she explained. “We’ve got to teach them that they actually can be leaders and they actually should be leaders.

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“We’ve got to provide girls and women more with experiences that will increase their aspiration to be leaders, so they can see they can lead in situations to help people around them. We need to help them understand how to network, and provide them with more mentoring opportunities.”

Madsen says women who have risen to positions of power have yet another common responsibility: leading by example, to inspire the next generation of female leaders to do the same. (VOA)

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Facebook Chief Operating Officer Supports Releasing Russia-linked Advertisements

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Facebook chief
Chief Operating Officer of Facebook, Sheryl Sandberg, delivers a speech during the visit of a start-up companies gathering at Paris' Station F, in Paris. voa

Washington, October 12: Facebook Chief Operating Officer Sheryl Sandberg said Thursday she “absolutely” supports the public release of all advertisements produced by a Russia-linked organization during the 2016 presidential election.

Sandberg said the company is “working on transparency” following the revelation last month that a group with alleged ties to the Russian government ran $100,000 worth of ads on Facebook promoting “divisive” causes like Black Lives Matter.

“Things happened on our platform that shouldn’t have happened,” she said during the interview with Axios’s Mike Allen.

Later Thursday, Facebook Chief Operating Officer is set to meet with Congressional investigators who are looking into what role the advertisements which began running in 2015 and continued through this year may have played in the 2016 presidential election.

The $100,000 worth of ads represent a very small fraction of the total $2.3 billion spent by, and on behalf of, President Donald Trump and losing-candidate Hillary Clinton’s campaigns during the election.

Multiple congressional investigations have been launched, seeking to determine what effect alleged Russian meddling may have played in the election.

In addition, Robert Mueller, a former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is conducting a criminal probe, including whether President Trump’s campaign colluded with Russian operatives during the election season. Trump has denied working with the Russians.

Facebook had previously agreed to disclose the thousands of Facebook ads to congress. Sandberg said Thursday she thinks “it’s important that [the investigators] get the whole picture and explain that to the American people.”

In response to the Russian ad buys, Facebook Chief Operating Officer said that company is hiring 4,000 new employees to oversee ads and content. She said the company is also using “machine learning and automation” to target fake accounts that spread fake news.

She defined fake news as “things that are false hoaxes” and said Facebook is working to stamp out the bad information by teaming up with third-party fact checkers and warning users before they share news deemed fake by Facebook.

She said it is important to be cautious when going after fake news because “a lot of what we allow on Facebook is people expressing themselves” and “when you cut off speech for one person, you cut off speech for all people.”

“We don’t check the information posted on Facebook before people post it, and I don’t think people should want us to,” she said.

Hundreds of fake accounts were used to distribute the Russia-linked advertisements, Sandberg said. But had those ads been posted by legitimate users, “we would have let them run,” she said.(VOA)