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At the baseline, every database is a very simple soul. A good database is meant to ingest your data, process it, and return it to the users when needed in whatever form they want it. To be practical for the needs in hand, any given database must allow as many queries as possible to be simultaneously processed. SQL came up as a declarative language for database management.
This does not mean that an SQL statement dictates the database as to how to perform a query. Still, it just raises the parameters with which a database can operate within itself while a statement is executed. In other terms, a programmer who interacts with the given database is ceding control over the specifics to a database. The application logic gets separated from the data storage with this approach. As a result, the database itself becomes capable of managing multiple simultaneous requests. Most specifically, a database has to handle situations where more than one reads and writes transactions on the same piece of data.
The conventional coders may raise a question as to why don’t we try to read/write locks to handle this? It is reasonable to raise this question as to the most adopted solution for databases for years. However, there is a problem with this approach. The readers may tend to block the writers and vice versa. These come as the semantics of a standard read/write lock. In the case of a transactional database, these semantics may have a bigger adverse impact on the performance.
You may consider a system with two different kinds of transactions. One may be a long-running read transaction that builds up a report or likes doing some analytics. Consider there is only one among these that may be running at one time. Another transaction may be a short-running user action with more than one write or read at a time. An order request or similar transaction can be considered as an example. In a typical web application environment, there can be thousands of such transactions.
Here, the primary problem with a standard read/write lock is that there can be an overlap between the set of read data for a long-running transaction. A set of write data on a short-running transaction may get blocked until the former transaction completes. In the tangled internet world of interweb now, even a long-running transaction that runs for a few seconds is unacceptable to the end-users. A study shows that the bounce rate is high for the web pages, which has a response delay of more than 3 seconds. If you are looking for better database solutions to ensure uptime and performance of your web applications, check out what RemoteDBA got to offer you.
The role of Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC)
Considering the above challenge, there is some ‘wow’ factor about what MVCC or Multi-Version Concurrency Control solve. The name itself suggests how it solves the problem. Rather than maintaining predetermined storage space for any given record and applying read/write as lock as done conventionally, an MVCC DB will let a given record keep multiple versions simultaneously.
This means the updates are now installing another fresh row version. With this, the writers are contesting over their rights toa dd a new version on top of the given row, and the readers can read from any visible version out there. This means that long-running transactions will not lock again even when the short transaction queries are processed. Only if two or more transactions are vying for update rights on a row version, there is a possibility of mutual interference. We can see that MVCC is ideally used to implement the snapshots of a database.
As an effect of the same, while a transaction initiates, it gets freeze with a collection of unique records as a visible set. Updates of these versions are logically sequenced after the transactions are read. All that DBAs need to do is support the MVCC semantics as a record storage system that stores various versions of the same record. It also acts as a mechanism that allows users to translate the record version number to transaction IDs to make the visibility calculations.
MVCC and SQL
MVCC system can be used to implement the SQL semantics concurrently. SQL offers different isolation levels, which acts as a knob allowing the programmersto dial in a level of consistency needed. In the case of MVCC, it means that while a transaction hits a specific record updated by another concurrent transaction, the action depends on its isolation level. At the basic level of consistency, one may allow these transactions to read any update before the transaction update is committed, known as dirty read.
However, the next consistency level will prevent any dirty reads and just read the calculated version from the given transaction’s visibility. This is called ‘consistent reading.’ An update which hits a record version that undergoes an uncommitted update may have two options as:
- It can merely freak out, and straightaway fail, or,
- It can wait for the updated transaction to complete and then decide based on the committed state.
The low isolation levels fail faster as logically; they see the transactional updates as they run. The high consistency levels may need to block or retry based on the user needs until the ultimate record state is known.
For example, you can consider a table with 3 live rows. You may assume that each of these has some specific ID values. Provided this, we may examine the below use case.
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The first transaction starts before transaction 2 and begins to read each entry in the tale. Simultaneously, transaction 2 also starts up and looks for updatable records. Transaction #2 may outrace the first transaction to the record 100 and slips in early to updates it. A second transaction is still running; the update is pending. In a lock-based system, transaction 1 may have to get locked or validate that no record is changed while it was reading. On the other hand, in the MVCC model, while the first transaction finally gets around to read the record 100, it reads the most recent version. As a result, no reader is blocking a writer, and no one has to roll back or block.
This way, MVCC concurrency control can ensure multi-version concurrency in SQL distributed databases. It is proved to be the right approach for the DBAs to ensure database concurrency by providing better performance.
By Siddhi Jain
The author who named the book after her twin sons -- Puhor and Niyor -- is a parent who has seen and heard the tales of ridicule and discrimination suffered by many in India and beyond. She says the book is an artistic illustration for kids that details how different families can live and coexist. Whether it's children with two dads or two moms, children with a single dad or single mom, and even multiracial family units, Borthakur's book teaches love, understanding, and compassion towards unconventional families.
Beyond race, gender, color, and ethnicity which have formed the bases for discrimination since the beginning of time, this book aims to bring to light a largely ignored issue. For so long, single parents have been treated like a taboo without any attempt to understand their situations; no one really cares how or why one's marriage ended but just wants to treat single parents as villains simply for choosing happiness and loving their children.
Homosexual parents, a relatively new family system, is another form that has suffered hate and discrimination for many years. Pritisha emphasizes the need to understand that diversity in people and family is what makes the world beautiful and colourful. 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race, and even differences in background
'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race and even differences in background. | Photo by Ben Wicks on Unsplash
Written for a global audience, the book is targeted at kids between the ages of five and 10, the reason it is embellished with colourful images of families of different types is to appeal to children's sense of sight and drive home the message at the same time. Borthakur believes children are the best place to start because the ages between five and 10 are the most formative, where little ones pick up habits, beliefs and perceptions.
The Guwahati-born author says, "With this book, I'm not trying to take away the job of parents in forming habits, I simply want to do my part as a parent. It is important that we impart the right values in our kids in a bid to build a better, more inclusive and tolerant global society that is fair to everyone." The author's first attempt at a book was an Assamese poetry 'Anubhav', published in 2010.
Set to be published under the label of Author's Channel, the book is like an adventure; a journey into uncharted territories, untouched subjects and matters long ignored. In her words. "The book takes a critical stand in defense of people in society who have had to undergo severe emotional torture for no cause of theirs. It is a terrible conception to think such people any less of a human just for being different," says publisher Aruna Naidu. By September 30, this title, priced at Rs 299, will be available online and in offline bookstores. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Book, children, Guwahati, Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories, moral, story, kids, discrimination, equality
If you feel that clean and well-groomed hands are just an essential prerequisite for women, you might like to think twice. Men should equally pay attention to their hands because our hand houses 1,500 bacteria living on each square centimeter of its skin. You can easily assume what havoc it can create in our body because in India we have the culture of eating with our hands and spaces beneath nails can become breeding heaven for germs. Moreover, clean and maintained hands boost confidence in their daily life activities. Therefore, it's important to keep your hands clean irrespective of your gender by washing or sanitizing at regular intervals. And, to keep them groomed, you don't have to visit a salon.
Rajesh U Pandya, Managing Director, KAI India, gives easy and completely doable tips to follow at home:
* Refrain from harsh soaps: You should be mindful of the soap you are using to wash your hands. Your soap can have a moisturizing element in it like aloe vera or shea butter. Ensure that you're washing your hands with normal water as hot water can make your hand's skin dry and scaly.
You should be mindful of the soap you are using to wash your hands. | Photo by Aurélia Dubois on Unsplash
* Clip your nails regularly: Make use of your personal nail clipper to cut your nails. After cutting your nails at a comfortable length also file them using a nail filer. Never share your nail care clipper as the germs can get transferred to your loved ones. Also, don't forget to use grime remover to remove hidden germs in corners and beneath nails. Also, you may like to file your nails to have a smooth finish.
* Good quality Nail Clipper: Do not use a rusted or chromium coated nail clipper as it might be harmful to skin and might cause dangerous bacterial infections.
* Stop the habit of nail chewing: Sometimes anxiety or extreme boredom can lead to chewing of nails. This habit only makes your nails uneven and ugly. Sometimes, our unclean nail folds give rise to viral, bacterial or fungal infections, which in turn can make us sick if we chew our nails.
Make use of your personal nail clipper to cut your nails. | Pixabay
* Exfoliate your hands: Similar to the way you exfoliate your face; your hands also need it. It helps to keep the dry skin at bay and keep your hands soft. You can buy a scrub or make one at home using brown sugar and olive oil. After scrubbing, you need to massage your hands with moisturizer.
Similar to the way you exfoliate your face; your hands also need it. It helps to keep the dry skin at bay and keep your hands soft. | Wikipedia
* Don't use your nails as tools: Always keep in mind that your nails are like jewels. Never use them to pry things open such as pop cans, removing keys from the ring, opening letters, or scraping off labels. This results in unnecessary breakage of nails, making your hands look dirty.
Never use your nails to pry things open such as pop cans, removing keys from the ring, opening letters or scraping off labels. | Photo by Sammy Williams on Unsplash
* Be aware of nail or cuticle inflammation or redness: If there are any signs of infection, disinfect the skin as soon as possible with an anti-bacterial or anti-fungal ointment.
(Article originally written by N.Lothungbeni Humtsoe) (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Nails, groom, hand, exfoliate, chew, nail clipper, bite, cuticle
Bitcoin has become an essential crypto asset in modern portfolios and investment funds. The confidence generated in this cryptocurrency will depend a lot on the diversification that companies make in their balance sheets in Bitcoin and the increase of institutional investors that allocate a percentage of their funds in this crypto. American fund manager Cathie Wood makes some interesting predictions, both in the rise that the Bitcoin price will experience in the next 5 years, suggesting these institutional investors allocate 5% of their funds; this will help leverage the Bitcoin market.
Bitcoin will grow by a tenfold
Bitcoin is projected to grow by 10 times its current value in five years, i.e., it could reach $500,000. Of course, this will require companies to invest in cryptocurrencies. This makes it necessary to increase the weight of Bitcoin on balance sheets through investments. One of the investment gurus who supports this prediction is Catherine Wood. Contrarily, Ray Dalio, despite being clear that relying on cash is not a good strategy, views Bitcoin with suspicion, although he calls for its investment. This behavior is due to the actions of governments against the cryptocurrency market.
If something is undoubted is the vertiginous increase that cryptocurrencies have had in general, they have risen more than 60% so far this year. So, even when some governments are trying to regulate cryptocurrencies, they will fail. This attempt to regulate will end up triggering even more cryptos, especially Bitcoin, which is the oldest and most solid of that market.
Bitcoin, is the oldest and most solid of the market. | Photo by Executium on Unsplash
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The current Bitcoin price means is time to buy:
The current price of bitcoin invites you to buy, and perhaps it would be foolhardy not to. In either case, bitcoin will always represent money. Maybe some external factors generate some misgivings, but if you refuse to invest in cryptocurrencies, you are basically denying the near future, it would be as if you didn't have a cell phone or internet.
In India, more and more people are becoming convinced of the benefits of holding some Bitcoin. This can be clearly seen in the rapid increase in the number of new accounts at crypto exchanges such as WazirX and CoinDCX.
ALSO READ: How can you trade in Bitcoin in India?
Bitcoin, despite its fluctuations, represents an excellent financial strategy. The support users give is significant. The same cannot be said of the FIAT currencies, which have lost value and support, showing how fragile they are, being subjected to a constant devaluation. As long as confidence in cryptos grows, the foundations will continue to be laid to maintain their rise and to be able to continue making transactions. We know this by previous experience, as has happened with Ether, thanks mainly to the growing activity of Defi and NFT, i.e. decentralized finance and non-fungible tokens.
Remember that when you invest in Bitcoin, you can do it by buying or trading. When you want to make these transactions do it in a secure Exchange, study your finances to invest, manage the risk, and learn to manage your portfolio efficiently.