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Located near the town of Rajagriha and about 90 kilometres southeast of Pataliputra Nalanda was a renowned Buddhist monastery and university in ancient Magadha (Now Bihar). The university was established within the 5th Century AD during the Gupta empire era. It had been functional from about 427 to 1197 CE. It's been called "one of the primary great universities in recorded history. Few of the buildings under Nalanda University were built by the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka the great which was recorded within the early developments of Buddhist learning. However, it was under the reign of Gupta Ruler Śakrāditya (also referred to as Kumāragupta) who reigned from 415-55 that the university finally flourished. The university complex occupies an area of 14 hectares.
The courses of Nalanda University were mainly dedicated to Buddhist and Hindu sacred and secular studies; nevertheless, it didn't stop the university to excel their students in foreign studies and philosophy, science, astronomy, logic and medicine. Later the scholars indulged in philosophy, metaphysics, Yoga-shastra, the Vedas, Samkhya and other scriptures of Buddhism. thanks to its reputation, vast choice of courses Nalanda attracted scholars from as distant as China, Greece, Persia, Korea, Tibet, Mongolia and various other Asian countries.
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The Library of Nalanda
The library of Nalanda was referred to as Dharma Gunj (Mountain of Truth) or Dharmagañja (Treasury of Truth). Yijing a scholar who resided in Nalanda for 10 years took back large numbers of texts providing evidence for a well-equipped library at the university. Several traditional Tibetan sources have made mentions of the existence of an excellent library at Nalanda named Dharmaganja which comprised three large multi-storeyed buildings, the Ratnasagara (Ocean of Jewels), the Ratnodadhi (Sea of Jewels), and the Ratnaranjaka (Jewel-adorned). Ratnodadhi alone was nine storeys high and housed several sacred manuscripts including the Prajnaparamita Sutra and Guhyasamaja.
The exact number of volumes in the Nalanda library remains unknown, but it's appraised to possess been hundreds of thousands. When a Buddhist scholar at Nalanda died, their manuscripts were added to the library's collections. When the Mughals invaded they set the libraries of Nalanda ablaze which has been reported to possess burned for about three months and more. One can only imagine the worth of data and scriptures that were being burnt right down to crisps and therefore the fact that it burnt for 3 whole months only adds to the incontrovertible truth about the vast libraries of Nalanda.
Nalanda was marked as one of the world's first residential universities, i.e., it had dormitories for students to reside in. made up of red bricks it occupies an area of 14 hectares. At its peak, Nalanda accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, several meditation halls and classrooms. On the campus, it had lakes and parks.
Xuanzang the Tang dynasty Chinese pilgrim left an in-depth account of the university during the 7th century. He described how the regularly laid-out towers, forest of pavilions, harmikas and temples appeared to "soar above the mists within the sky" so that from their cells the monks "might witness the birth of the winds and clouds. He states "An azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the stunning kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade.
ALSO READ: How did "Nalanda" Come About?
The Fall and Discovery
At the end Of the 12th Century India was invaded by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, the troops destroyed the monasteries, killed several monks, burnt the Grand library of Nalanda and drove the remaining of the monks out of site. The invasion by Bakhtriyar Khaliji was followed by the demise of Nalanda and therefore the decline of Buddhism in India.
About six centuries after Nalanda's decline, the location was first discovered and reported by Sir Francis Buchanan. The site was systematically excavated and consolidated by the Archaeological Survey of India from 1915 to 1937 and again from 1974 to 1982. It became key archaeological evidence of a truly international centre of organized learning. Nalanda was a rare combination of outstanding achievements in institution-building, site-planning, art and architecture. "The Excavated Remains at Nalanda" got included within the Tentative List of World Heritage on 09.01.2009. The known and excavated ruins of Nalanda extend over a region of about 150,000 square meters; however, if Xuanzang's account of Nalanda's extent is compared with present excavations, almost 90% of it remains undiscovered and unexcavated.
In September 2014, Nalanda University opened its doors for the primary batch of students. The campus is anticipated to be finished by the end of 2021.Twitter/nalanda_univ
The former President of Indian Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam raised the thought of reviving the ancient Nalanda University in his address of March 2006 to the Bihar State legislature. Not too long after the Singapore Government approached the govt. of India with the "Nalanda Proposal" which essentially talked about the re-establishment of the international educational institute, Nalanda. The government of Bihar was quick to take action to the visionary idea and consulted with the govt. of India on the way ahead. Other nations like Japan, China, Thailand, Bhutan and several others formed a consortium to fund this international state-of-the-art institution that aims to blend values of the ancient Nalanda University with the contemporary. In 2010, the govt. of India passed the Nalanda University Act to revive the famous university, and a contemporary institute, Nalanda University, at Rajgir. After a gap of nearly eight hundred years on 1st September 2014, the University opened its doors for the primary batch of 15 students. A modern campus spreading over 160 hectares is anticipated to be finished by the end of 2021.
Well, if you'll notice then the moon takes twenty-nine days to complete its lunar cycle, whereas women's menstrual cycle is generally 28 days! Coincidence? I think, not.
It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies. In fact, in ancient times it was said that the natural rhythm of women was to menstruate under a new moon and ovulate under a full moon.
At the same time, it is also believed that the cycle and its stages are connected to different seasons, namely, spring, summer, autumn, and winter.
Let us see how the lunar cycle is related to a woman's menstrual cycle!
It must be noted that the menstruation period is during the new moon period and also during the winter season. It is said that this is a reflective phase; a phase of silence, introspection, and solitude. During this phase, a woman's body is more sensitive, and so they're able to connect with it and hear the messages it gives. Interestingly, this is also the time when a woman naturally recycles energy as she menstruates, and hence, it's also the for their rest and recovery.
The Crescent moon represents the pre-ovulation period. This is also the season of spring, and so the time corresponds to an increase in physical energy. During this period, a woman's mental strength is at its peak and their thoughts are much clearer. At the same time, emotions are more stable during this period, and because of which women tend to be more social and outgoing.
This phase of the moon represents ovulation, and the season associated with this phase is summer. It must be noted that this period is full of energy and vitality. At the same time, this period plays a significant role in the lives of women because it's actually a fertile phase in all aspects of their life, be it personal or professional. During this period, the self-confidence and self-esteem in women tend to rise, and along with this, an increase in their sex drive can be seen very well.
This phase of the moon represents pre-menstruation, which is also associated with the autumn season. During this period, a woman's physical energy starts to decline. Metaphorically, just like a tree sheds its leaves, a woman, too, feels the need to let go of anything that is not benefiting her. At the same time, memory and the ability to concentrate decrease in this period.
I hope, now you will not think of the moon just as a celestial body, but as a companion in the lives of women!
Keywords: Women pre-Menstruation, Feminine, women Health Fitness, the moon represents the pre-ovulation period, period and moon cycle.
The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.
A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".
"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.
"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.
The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".
Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)
Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.
Dozens of female high school and university students in Afghanistan have joined vocational centers to learn tailoring and cosmetology as the women and girls have been banned from school and university since the Taliban took over the country, Tolo News reported.
According to these girls, sitting at home is very difficult for them, therefore they are willing to learn a profession.
"It has been a couple of months that we are at home since schools and universities were closed. We have to learn a profession or a job because we can't sit like this at home," said Samira Sharifi, a student.
"I want to learn a profession for my future to help my family, we want our schools to be opened so that we can carry on with our education," said Mahnaz Ghulami, a student.
Most of the trainees in the vocational centres are students of high schools and universities.
After the closure of high schools and universities across Afghanistan, Herat female students have started gaining vocational training in the province.
"We have decided to learn tailoring along with our education," said Shaqaiq Ganji, a student.
"It's necessary for every woman to learn tailoring to help her family and her husband, especially in this bad economic situation," said Laili Sofizada, a teacher.
Due to the closure of schools and universities, the number of students in vocational centers doubled compared to recent years, the report added.
"Our classes had the capacity of 20 to 25 students but we increased it to 45 students, because most of the students have lost their spirit, and their schools and universities have closed," said Fatima Tokhi, director of technical and professional affairs at the Herat department of labour and social affairs.
The Labour and Social Affairs department of Herat said the department is working to provide more opportunities for Herat girls and women to learn vocational training.
"The art and professional sector and the kindergarten departments have started their activities, we support them and supervise their activities," said Mulla Mohammad Sabit, head of the labour and social affairs of Herat.
During the past two months, most of the women and girls who worked in state and private institutions lost their jobs and are trying to learn handicrafts and vocational training. (IANS/JB)
Keywords: Afghanistan- Taliban Women, Vocational Arts, Handicrafts, Herat female students