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NASA Scientists say, Pluto’s Icy Heart is very much Alive and Kicking

Inside the region known as Sputnik Planum, Strange shapes were seen that suggest the tiny world is constantly repaving its surface with churning ice

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Spherical mosaic of New Horizons images showing the expanse of Sputnik Planum (released September 10, 2015). Image source: Wikipedia
  • Scientists find evidence that Pluto’s surfaces are re-paved through convection every 500,000 years
  • The energy to power this activity comes from decaying radioactive elements
  • The movement of nitrogen ice layers helps power the planet’s atmosphere

The primary attraction of the photos that were sent back from NASA’s New Horizons Spacecraft, which made a 2015 voyage around Pluto, was the huge heart shape on the planet’s surface. The heart shape is considered to be a plain named Sputnik Planum that has no visible craters that were detectable by New Horizons, leading to the conclusion that it is less than 2 million years old.

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The heart-shaped Sputnik Planum undergoes a very interesting internal activity through which its surface is repaved every 500,000 years. This period may seem very slow on the human clock, but scientists say 500,000 years is rapid on the geographical timeline.

The process, called convection, replaces older nitrogen ice sheets with newer ones, with the help of reservoirs that are several miles deep. The newer layers of ice spread out on the surface and replenish any craters that might have formed, making the plain look perpetually youthful.

Pluto
New Horizons Probe

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“We found evidence that even on a distant cold planet billions of miles from Earth, there is sufficient energy for vigorous geological activity, as long as you have ‘the right stuff,’ meaning something as soft and pliable as solid nitrogen,” noted William McKinnon, who is co-investigator on the New Horizons science team.

The energy to power the continuous processes revolving around convection has its source in the decaying radioactive elements embedded in the surface.

“Not only is it the heart of Pluto, it’s the beating heart,” says Bill McKinnon of Washington University in St Louis. “There are actually things happening. If we were to come back in 100,000 years, the pattern would be markedly altered.”

It is yet uncertain whether this feature is unique to Pluto’s surface, or it is also common to other planets found in the neighborhood of Pluto, such as Makemake or Eris. Celestial bodies in the Kuiper Belt could also possess these surfaces. The constant movement of nitrogen ice sheets is believed to help support Pluto’s atmosphere.

-by Saurabh Bodas, an intern at NewsGram. Twitter: @saurabhbodas96

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84% Indians Hope to Retain Their Jobs Despite Automation: WEF

Indians see automation, but hopeful of keeping jobs

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Indians jobs
Although majority of Indians think their jobs would be automated in the next 10 years, 84 per cent hope to retain their jobs. (Representational Image) Pixabay

Although majority of Indians think their jobs would be automated in the next 10 years, 84 per cent hope to retain their jobs, supported by their skills, according to a report by World Economic Forum (WEF) and Ipsos.

India tops the list in terms of expectation of jobs automation, as around 71 per cent respondents expect their jobs to be automated. Saudi Arabia comes second with 56 per cent respondents expecting jobs getting automated, and in China 55 per cent respondents feel the same.

“Interestingly, 84 per cent of urban Indians polled are confident of keeping their jobs, using the skills they possess. The survey also shows across all markets, Indians are most confident, followed by the Netherlands (83 per cent) and the US (82 per cent),” the report said.

Indians jobs
Indians realise while automation is likely they know it will act as an enabler to improve efficiencies in deliverability. Pixabay

The markets least confident of holding onto their jobs in the face of automation, include Japan (23 per cent), South Korea (33 per cent) and Russia (50 per cent).

Also Read- Smartphone Giant Vivo To Introduce iQOO Premium Phone in India Next Month

Commenting on the survey, Parijat Chakraborty of Ipsos India said, “Indian job market is hierarchy driven, promotions are skills and performance-led. Indians realise while automation is likely they know it will act as an enabler to improve efficiencies in deliverability; human intellect, skill-sets and capital will still be needed to get the job done.” (IANS)