Sunday September 23, 2018

Study Shows That Childhood Friendships Can be Affected by Negative Parenting

Negative features of parenting, such as depression and psychological control, increasing the risk of breaking up childhood friendships, finds a study. The results showed that for children with clinically depressed parents, the risk of best friendship dissolution increased by up to 104 percent, Xinhua reported.

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There was a similar, although not quite as dramatic, increase in the risk of best friendship dissolution for children with psychologically controlling parents.
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Negative features of parenting, such as depression and psychological control, increasing the risk of breaking up childhood friendships, finds a study.

The results showed that for children with clinically depressed parents, the risk of best friendship dissolution increased by up to 104 percent, Xinhua reported.

There was a similar, although not quite as dramatic, increase in the risk of best friendship dissolution for children with psychologically controlling parents.

Parent depression and parent psychological control uniquely predicted subsequent child friendships breaking up, above and beyond contributions of peer difficulties.

There was a similar, although not quite as dramatic, increase in the risk of best friendship dissolution for children with psychologically controlling parents.
Representational image, pixabay

“We already know that peer status plays an important role in friendship outcomes. For example, well-liked children have more long-lasting relationships than do their classmates,” said Brett Laursen, Professor at Florida Atlantic University (FAU), US.

But “children with depressed and psychologically controlling parents are not learning healthy strategies for engaging with other people, which could have long-term consequences for their future relationships”, Laursen added.

However, contrary to the researchers’ expectations, there were no evidence that positive parenting behaviours like warmth and affection altered the stability of children’s best friendships.

contrary to the researchers' expectations, there were no evidence that positive parenting behaviours like warmth and affection altered the stability of children's best friendships
Family, pixabay

“We were hoping that positive behaviours would help extend the life of friendships and that it would be a buffer or a protective factor,” said Laursen.

“This was not the case. Warmth and affection don’t appear to make that much of a difference. It is the negative characteristics of parents that are key in determining if and when these childhood friendships end,” he noted.

For the study, published in the Journal of Family Psychology, the team looked at 1,523 children. Among them 766 were boys, from grades one to six. They conducted a survival analysis to identify the characteristics of parents that predict the stability of their children’s friendships.

Also Read: Affects of Prenatal Marijuana on Baby

The researchers also examined the parenting styles to predict the occurrence and timing of the dissolution of kids’ best friendships from the beginning to the end of elementary school (grades one to six).

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High Immunity Protein at Birth Cuts Childhood Malaria Risk

For the study, published in the Journal of Scientific Reports, the team examined 349 Mozambican pregnant women and their newborn babies up to two years of age

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A teenager caressing the newborn. Pixabay

Newborn babies who are born with a high level of an immune-related protein in their blood cells are less likely to develop malaria throughout their early childhood, a study revealed.

The research showed that babies born with a high level of a certain type of immunity proteins cytokine, known as IL-12, in their umbilical cord blood had a higher resistance to the development of malaria in the first two years of their life.

“The finding suggests that there is a strong link between levels of this IL-12 protein obtained from the umbilical cord blood and the development of malaria in early childhood,” said lead author Yong Song, from Curtin University in Australia.

With more than 90 per cent of malaria infections occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, childhood malaria remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, resulting in 500,000 deaths annually.

Malaria is caused by parasites that are spread to people through mosquito bites.
Malaria is caused by parasites that are spread to people through mosquito bites. (VOA)

The team also investigated how newborn babies develop high levels of IL-12 in the cord blood.

“We found that the inbred quantity of these small proteins was not only influenced by children and mother’s genetic variation, but was also dependent on the immune system conditions of the mother during pregnancy,” Song noted.

Also Read: FDA Approves Drug to Stop Some Malaria Relapses

For the study, published in the Journal of Scientific Reports, the team examined 349 Mozambican pregnant women and their newborn babies up to two years of age.

“The study could have significant implications for future vaccine design techniques that could assist with the prevention of malaria in high-risk countries such as Mozambique,” said co-author Brad Zhang, Associate Professor from Curtin’s School of Public Health. (IANS)