Wednesday September 19, 2018

New Target For Parkinson’s Therapy Identified

The study revealed that, inside cells, alpha-synuclein binds to mitochondria, where cardiolipin resides

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The reason that Parkinson’s disease develops is not known. Wikimedia commons
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Researchers have discovered one of the factors behind nerve cell death in Parkinson’s disease, unlocking the potential for new treatment to slow the progression of this fatal neurodegenerative disorder.

The researchers found that cardiolipin — a molecule inside nerve cells — helps ensure that a protein called alpha-synuclein folds properly. Misfolding of this protein leads to protein deposits that are the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease.

“Identifying the crucial role cardiolipin plays in keeping these proteins functional means cardiolipin may represent a new target for the development of therapies against Parkinson’s disease,” said Scott Ryan, Professor at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.

“Currently there are no treatments that stop nerve cells from dying,” Ryan added.

ALSO READ: Testing Tears May Help In Early Diagnosis Of Parkinson’s Disease

These deposits are toxic to nerve cells that control voluntary movement. When too many of these deposits accumulate, nerve cells die, the researchers said.

For the study, published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers used stem cells collected from people with the disease. The team studied how nerve cells try to cope with misfolded alpha-synuclein.

10 million people living worldwide suffer from Parkinson;s disease Pixabay
10 million people living worldwide suffer from Parkinson’s disease. Pixabay

“We thought if we can better understand how cells normally fold alpha-synuclein, we may be able to exploit that process to dissolve these aggregates and slow the spread of the disease,” Ryan said.

The study revealed that, inside cells, alpha-synuclein binds to mitochondria, where cardiolipin resides. Cells use mitochondria to generate energy and drive metabolism.

ALSO READ: Progression of Parkinson disease could be slowed with exercise

Normally, cardiolipin in mitochondria pulls synuclein out of toxic protein deposits and refolds it into a non-toxic shape, the researchers added.

The researchers found that, in people with Parkinson’s disease, this process is overwhelmed over time and mitochondria are ultimately destroyed.

“As a result, the cells slowly die. Based on this finding, we now have a better understanding of why nerve cells die in Parkinson’s disease and how we might be able to intervene,” the researchers noted. (IANS)

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Boxing for Fitness Takes the Fight to Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson's mainly affects the dopamine-producing cells in the brain. That leads to a lack or a loss of dopamine, which contributes to the movement difficulties

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The Rock Steady Boxing nonprofit was founded in 2006 by attorney Scott C. Newman, who was looking for ways to stay active after being diagnosed with Parkinson's at age 40. Pixabay

Rock Steady Boxing NOVA gym opened in McLean, Virginia, outside Washington, D.C., last December. That was the good news for 75-year-old Neil Eisner, who was diagnosed with Parkinson’s six years ago and finds boxing an effective way to fight back against the disease.

Rock Steady Boxing (RSB) was designed especially for people with Parkinson’s, a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to tremors and balance problems. Each exercise in the program focuses on a specific skill — one is combining punches on a bag to work on strength, another is crawling across the floor. Eisner says the exercises help him perform everyday tasks like moving around and getting in and out of bed.

Some strengthening exercises target vocal cords. “One of the things that’s interesting enough is [Parkinson’s patients] tend to have a [softer] voice. When you have that lower voice, and people can’t hear you, you don’t realize. So, he asks us to bring our voice clearly and more loudly,” Eisner said.

Becoming an RSB trainer

For personal trainer Alec Langstein, working with an older population is familiar. He understands their health issues and the need for them to stay active.

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Parkinson’s patient Jim Coppula gets some pointers from his daughter Ellen as he works out on a bag during his Rock Steady Boxing class in Costa Mesa, California, Sept. 18, 2013. (VOA)

“My aunt has a gym in Westchester, New York, and she does a Rock Steady Boxing program there,” he said. “She invited me up to her gym to check out the program. She thought it would be a perfect fit for what I do. I helped out with a few classes, and it was just, I thought, an amazing program.”

The Rock Steady Boxing nonprofit was founded in 2006 by attorney Scott C. Newman, who was looking for ways to stay active after being diagnosed with Parkinson’s at age 40. Since then, more than 500 boxing programs have been introduced in the U.S. and around the world.

Langstein went to the organization’s headquarters to become an RSB-licensed trainer, and a few months later, he opened his Rock Steady Boxing NOVA gym.

“It’s a typical boxing program,” he explained. “They focus on balance, hand-eye coordination, reaction, footwork. There is some cognitive stuff because in boxing, certain numbers equal certain punches. So, when I yell certain numbers, you have to move and react at the same time. So, the brain and the body are working together. It’s also taking out the aggression some people may have out of having the disease.”

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A Parkinson’s patient waits for his training session in the ring during his Rock Steady Boxing session in Costa Mesa, California, Sept. 16, 2013. (VOA)

Improving quality of life

To understand how RSB can help Parkinson’s patients, physical therapist Danielle Sequira says it’s important to know what triggers the symptoms.

“Parkinson’s mainly affects the dopamine-producing cells in the brain. That leads to a lack or a loss of dopamine, which contributes to the movement difficulties,” she said.

While boxing and other exercises don’t cure the disease or stop the dopamine decline, they can improve the patient’s quality of life. Exercises can be modified for people with Parkinson’s, including those in wheelchairs.

“The research shows that exercise helps the brain use dopamine more efficiently,” Sequira said. “My goal usually, after I work with some of my patients with Parkinson’s, is to refer them out to get involved in an exercise program out in the community.”

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Parkinson’s patients stretch as they begin their workout at Rock Steady Boxing in Costa Mesa, California, Sept. 16, 2013. (VOA)

The social effect

RSB seems to have helped Victoria Hebert reduce the symptoms of her Parkinson’s. She has a tremor in her left hand, and says certain situations trigger it.

“Being cold, being hot, or sitting with a crowd I’m not very comfortable with, I can’t help starting to shake. I end up having to sit on my hand just to keep it still,” she said.

Also Read: Study: Experimental Drug can Halt Parkinson’s Progression

But with this crowd, Hebert doesn’t feel the need to hide the disease. “These people have become very close in the four or five months we’ve been together.”

“That’s the big part of it, sharing experiences with others,” she added. “I have to say, it’s very embarrassing, but over eight years of time I’ve never met another person with Parkinson’s. Then, I came here, and it was like a whole class of 20, 25 people with it. It was kind of surprising to me, kind of surprising that I, myself, didn’t reach out to anybody before that.” (VOA)