Tuesday February 19, 2019

New test may prevent antibiotic resistances from spreading

Thereby, physicians would hold a powerful tool from which they could benefit in personalised therapy -- this means the administration of a fitting drug, the researchers said

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Overuse of Antibiotic pills has resulted in development of drug resilient bacterias,, Pixabay
  • Scientists have found a new kind of test
  • This may prevent antibiotic resistance
  • The new method also provides faster diagnosis

Scientists have developed a new “rapid test” that produces a cheaper and faster diagnosis of infectious diseases in just three hours thus preventing antibiotic resistance from spreading.

Owing to small number of pathogens in a patient’s sample, standard practices require up to 72 hours to allow for a reliable result for the infectious diagnostics. The new method provides much faster diagnosis with the help of tiny electrodes that are fixed on the surface of a stamp-sized chip.

Drug overdose
This new test will stop antibiotic resistance. Pixabay

“Electric fields secure bacteria in a very small area,” said Ute Neugebauer from the Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Germany. The scientists then apply various antibiotics in different concentrations on the trapped bacteria and examine them with Raman spectroscopy.

“This means that we irradiate the pathogens with laser light and evaluate the scattered light spectrum”, Neugebauer said. “We combine light-based analytical methods with microfluidic sample processing. With our Lab-on-a-Chip system, thus a miniaturised lab, we are able to clearly identify bacterial strains and their resistances, in less than three hours,” he explained.

Also Read: Asthma Afflicted Children Are Prescribed Unwanted Antibiotics: Study

The combination of fast, light-based diagnostics and a high automation level reduces the time from sampling to result from to date 72 to three and a half hours.

The doctors can then derive whether the strain is resistant or sensible. At the same time they can also derive information on the needed concentration of the antibiotic to constrain bacterial growth.

The test will also lead to faster diagnosis. Wikimedia Commons
The test will also lead to faster diagnosis. Wikimedia Commons

“This is an important diagnostic parameter that influences the success of a treatment decidedly…such a fast procedure could revolutionise diagnostics of infectious diseases”, the researchers said, in a paper published in the journal Analytical Chemistry.

Another, more far-reaching, the aim is the further development of a cartridge-based rapid test system, which will enable general practitioners to identify resistances in a fast and easy way for the first time. Thereby, physicians would hold a powerful tool from which they could benefit in personalised therapy — this means the administration of a fitting drug, the researchers said. IANS

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Novel Drug May Shorten Treatment Duration For Tuberculosis

Despite significant progress in combating tuberculosis, it remains the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, he said

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A new experimental antibiotic for tuberculosis (TB) has been shown to be more effective against TB than Isoniazid, a decades old drug which is currently one of the standard treatment for the disease, finds a study on mice.

The new drug, called AN12855, has several advantages over Isoniazid as Isoniazid requires conversion to its active form by a Mycobacterial enzyme, KatG, in order to kill the pathogen, which creates some problems.

In some M. tuberculosis, KatG is nonfunctional. That does not make M. tuberculosis any less pathogenic, but it prevents the drug from working. Consequently, this creates an easy avenue for the development of drug resistance.

In the study, the new drug showed a much lower tendency to develop resistance, and it remains in the tissues where the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria reside for longer, killing them more effectively.

WHO will start working towards ending Tuberculosis
Dr. Simon Angelo (L) examines Iman Steven suffering from tuberculosis, held by her mother (R) at the hospital of Doctors Without Borders (MSF), June 15, 2016, at the Protection of Civilians (PoC) site in Malakal, South Sudan. VOA

The goal of TB drug development programmes is to develop universal treatment regimens that will shorten and simplify TB treatment in patients, which typically takes at least six months, and sometimes more than a year, said lead author Gregory T. Robertson, Assistant Professor at the Colorado State University in Fort Collins in the US.

For the study, the researchers used a new TB mouse model that develops these M. tuberculosis-containing granulomas to compare Isoniazid and AN12855.

Granuloma refers to a mass of granulation tissue, typically produced in response to infection, inflammation, or the presence of a foreign substance.

“We discovered that the drugs differed dramatically with respect to their abilities to kill the pathogen in highly diseased tissues,” said Robertson.

Tuberculosis
New TB drug may shorten treatment duration: Study. IANS

AN12855 proved more effective, “without selecting for appreciable drug resistance”, added Robertson in the study published in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Despite significant progress in combating tuberculosis, it remains the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, he said.

Also Read- Oscar Nominees Furious Over Exclusion From Telecast

“Multidrug resistance is a further challenge to the mission to control TB globally. Collectively, our group has pioneered the use of new TB mouse efficacy models to help advance innovative new therapies designed to shorten the length of TB treatment.” (IANS)