Friday September 21, 2018

New waste disposal system

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photo source :http://1zkabgxps7w13roz0lqg1o87.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/garbage-800x533.jpg

The Centre has released new rules for the management of bio medical waste that prescribe better incinerators to reduce emission.

The set of rules called the  Environment Ministry’s Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, also includes vaccination, blood donation and surgical camps.

According to the new rules the waste has to be classified into four categories contrary to the previous 10 , to improve the division of waste at the source .Also the process has been simplified .

“The new bio-medical waste management rules will change the way the country used to manage this waste earlier. Under the new regime, the coverage will increase. It also provides for pre-treatment of lab waste, blood samples, etc.

“It mandates bar code system for proper control and has simplified categorisation and authorisation. Thus it will make a big difference to the Clean India Mission,” Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar said while releasing the new rules.

Bio medical waste includes human and animal anatomical waste, treatment apparatus like needles, syringes and other materials used at healthcare facilities.

Total bio-medical waste generation in the country is 484 tonnes per day (TPD) from 1,68,869 healthcare facilities (HCF). Of this, 447 TPD is treated, ministry officials said.

According to the new rules use of chlorinated plastic bags , glove and blood bags will end in 2 years  and training will be provided to healthcare workers . Also according to the new rules  bedded hospitals will get automatic authorisation while there would be a one-time authorisation for non-bedded hospitals.

Under the new rules State government will be providing land for the waste disposal.

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In the wake of Cauvery Issue, Bengaluru wastes 50 Percent of water it gets from the river

Over the next nine years, the city's water demand is predicted to be three times more than supply

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Migrant workers in Mysore. Flickr

KARNATAKA, September 16, 2016: As Karnataka continues its legal battle over the Cauvery, the state’s capital- almost entirely dependent on the river- wastes half the water it receives, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of water-use data.

The only Indian city that wastes water at a greater rate is Kolkata. And the situation in Bengaluru will only worsen.

Every Bangalorean- 8.5 million people live in India’s third-most populous city- should get 150 litres of water per day. But what she gets is 65 litres, the equivalent of four flushes of a toilet. Water is supplied, on average, thrice a week.

Over the next nine years, the city’s water demand is predicted to be three times more than supply.

Its population density 13 times higher than Karnataka’s average, Bengaluru consumes 50 percent of Cauvery water reserved for domestic use in Karnataka. As much as 49 per cent of this water supplied is what is called “non-revenue water” or “unaccounted for water” — i.e., water lost in distribution — according to the Bengaluru Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) data.

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“Inequitable supply to different parts of the city — ranging from one-third to three times the average per capita daily supply — makes this worse,” Krishna Raj, associate professor at the Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bengaluru, and author of a 2013 paper on the city’s water supply system, told IndiaSpend.

Bengaluru’s water loss is the second-highest among Indian metros: Kolkata leads at 50 per cent. The wastage figure for Mumbai is 18 percent, New Delhi, 26 per cent and Chennai, 20 per cent. Across the world, cities lose only about 15 to 20 percent of their supply, said the ISEC study, which pegged Bengaluru’s losses at 48 percent three years ago.

Former BWSSB chairman, T.M. Vijay Bhaskar, admitted to a loss of about 46 percent water at a conference in February 2016. “Of 1,400 MLD (million litres per day) of water pumped to the city, 600 MLD goes to waste,” he said.

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The ISEC paper attributed the wastage to two types of distributional losses: First, damages, and leakages in the water supply system and, second, unauthorised water connections.

“Water leakages largely take place at distribution mains, service pipes and stand posts and together account for 88.5 percent of water spillover, the rest being low leakages at the main valve, meter joint stop valve, ferrule, air valve and others,” the paper said. “This huge loss is directly attributed to the water seepage at various stages of supply.”

Of the 270 thousand million cubic ft (TMC) of Cauvery water allotted to Karnataka by the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal, Raj estimated that, roughly, about 80 percent is used for agriculture and industry (down from over 90 percent in 2007). This leaves about 20 percent for rural and urban domestic use, of which Bengaluru records the highest demand.

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The city receives about 19 TMC of Cauvery water. Recently, the Karnataka State Urban Development Department provisionally raised supply by an additional 10 TMC to meet the needs of 110 villages added to the metropolitan area in 2007. A formal proposal to raise the city’s water supply to 30 TMC from the Cauvery basin has been forwarded to the central government.

Sourced from a distance of 100 km, up to a height of 540 m, the BWSSB spends nearly 60 percent of its budget in pumping water to the Bengaluru metropolitan region. With groundwater reserves overexploited and polluted, and its other two ageing reservoirs — the 120-year-old Heseraghatta and 83-year-old Thippegondanahalli of Cauvery’s Arkavathi tributary — unreliable, Bengaluru is almost entirely dependent on the disputed river.

The large water losses, which ISEC has recorded for the last five years at least, offset any efforts to augment water supply through various stages of Cauvery river water supply projects. Thus, efforts to enhance per capita water availability to 150 litres per capita per day (LPCD) to meet World Health Organisation (WHO) and Central Public Health and Environmental Organisation (CPEEHO) standards remain unfulfilled.

“After Stage IV Phase II of the Cauvery Water Supply Scheme (CWSS) was commissioned recently, Bengaluru now receives 1,350 MLD of water daily,” said Raj. “For the city’s population of 8.5 million (Census 2011), this quantity officially raises per capita water availability to 158.82 litres, which is more than sufficient to meet the WHO and CPEEHO standards.” (IANS)