Saturday November 23, 2019

Presence of Oral Bacteria Associated With Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

To identify the bacteria, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 35 of the samples that had high amounts of bacterial DNA

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A patient for a regular check up of their teeth.
Picture shows a person's teeth being checked upon.

The presence of oral bacteria in cystic pancreatic tumours is associated with the severity of the tumour, a new study suggests.

According to the researcher, the results can help to reappraise the role of bacteria in the development of pancreatic cysts. If further studies show that the bacteria actually affects the pathological process, it could lead to new therapeutic strategies using antibacterial agents.

“We were surprised to find oral bacteria in the pancreas, but it wasn’t totally unexpected. The bacteria we identified has already been shown in an earlier, smaller study to be higher in the saliva of patients with pancreatic cancer,” said co-author Margaret Sallberg Chen from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden.

Not all pancreatic tumours are cancerous. For instance there are so-called cystic pancreatic tumours (pancreatic cysts), many of which are benign. A few can, however, become cancerous, the researcher said.

“We find most bacteria at the stage where the cysts are starting to show signs of cancer,” Chen said.

Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

“What we hope is that this can be used as a biomarker for the early identification of the cancerous cysts that need to be surgically removed to cure cancer…” she added.

For the study, published in the journal Gut, the team examined the presence of bacterial DNA in fluid from pancreatic cysts in 105 patients and compared the type and severity of the tumours.

The results showed that the fluid from the cysts with high-grade dysplasia and cancer contained much more bacterial DNA than that from benign cysts.

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To identify the bacteria, the researchers sequenced the DNA of 35 of the samples that had high amounts of bacterial DNA.

They found large variations in the bacterial composition between different individuals, but also a greater presence of certain oral bacteria in fluid and tissue from cysts with high-grade dysplasia and cancer. (IANS)

Next Story

Pancreatic, Colorectal Cancer up 10% in 30 Years, Says Study

The research was published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

Global death rates for pancreatic cancer and incidence rates for colorectal cancer both increased by 10 per cent between 1990 and 2017, the results of a major study conducted across 195 countries revealed.

The results, presented at the UEG Week Barcelona, found that the number of pancreatic cancer cases increased by 130 per cent over the 27-year study period, from 1,95,000 in 1990 to 4,48,000 in 2017.

“Pancreatic cancer is one of the world’s deadliest cancers, with an overall five-year survival rate of just five per cent in high, middle and low-income countries,” said study lead author Reza Malekzadeh, Professor at Tehran University in the Iran.

“Major risk factors for the disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, are largely modifiable and present a huge opportunity for prevention,” Malekzadeh added.

Whilst some of this increase can be explained by the rising population and longevity, even after accounting for population changes, age-standardised incidence and death rates for pancreatic cancer increased by 12 per cent and 10 per cent respectively, the study said.

According to the researchers, the increase is related to a rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, as reflected by the risk factors of high BMI and higher blood glucose levels which are two of the leading risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

infertile, cancer
Infertile women had an overall 18 per cent higher risk of developing cancer compared to women who were not infertile. Pixabay

From 1990 to 2017, age-standardised incidence rates for colorectal cancer increased 9.5 per cent globally but, by contrast, age-standardised death rates decreased by 13.5 per cent.

The researchers believe that this is due to the introduction of colorectal cancer screening programmes, leading to earlier detection and an increased chance of survival.

The study also indicated that the risk factors for colorectal cancer are different in males and females, and should, therefore, be considered in national policy and prevention programmes.

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According to the findings, alcohol use, smoking and diets low in calcium, milk and fibre had a considerable burden on males. For females, dietary risks, but not alcohol use or smoking, were found to be the most attributable risks.

“Examining these cross-populational trends offers vital information on the changing burden of disease and aids the correct allocation of resources to improve patient outcomes,” said Professor Herbert Tilg, Chair of the UEG Scientific Committee.

The research was published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. (IANS)