Tuesday January 28, 2020
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Risk to Obscure Creature, Highlights Pangolin Seizures in Asia

The best recent journalism to appear in English on the subject of endangered wildlife in Vietnam was published on April 7 in The New York Times’ travel section of all places.

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Customs officers look at seized endangered pangolin scales displayed at a customs house in Hong Kong, following a record seizure of endangered pangolin scales, Hong Kong, Feb. 1, 2019. RFA

Huge seizures in recent years of trafficked pangolins have drawn worldwide attention to the threat of extinction faced by these armadillo-like anteaters.

It will come as a surprise to some that pangolins top the list of world’s most trafficked endangered mammals.

They’re much sought after in both China and Vietnam for their meat and their scales, which when ground up are believed to remove toxins and cure a variety of ailments, including everything from arthritis to cancer.

Users boil the pangolin to remove the scales, then dry and roast them.

Pangolins can be found in many Asian and African countries, although they are reported to have nearly disappeared from lowland Laos.

Many citizens in China, Vietnam, and Hong Kong believe that pangolin scales have medical uses, but experts, even including some of China’s traditional medicine practitioners, say that no scientific evidence supports this belief.

Some consumers claim that pangolin scales can improve kidney functions, treat palsy and skin diseases, and stimulate lactation, but here again scientific evidence is lacking.

They are also used in traditional African medicine.

Vietnam has passed laws banning the sale of pangolins but implementation appears to be weak. And while some pangolins are rescued, the country has limited capabilities when it comes to caring for them.

According to the Swiss-based International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), more than a million pangolins were poached in the decade prior to 2014.

Over the last three years, high-profile seizures of record numbers of pangolin scales by customs officials indicate that smugglers, traffickers, and traders are still selling the scales in large quantities.

On April 3, customs officials in Singapore seized a shipment of more than 14 tons of pangolin scales in what experts described as the largest seizure of a single shipment of its kind ever recorded.

Citing officials, The Washington Post reported that the shipment, which originated in Nigeria, was worth about $39 million U.S. dollars

Some 30,000 pangolins were believed killed for the shipment, according to an official with the Pangolin Specialist Group, who was quoted by The New York Times.

An IUCN Species Survival Commission formed the Pangolin Specialist Group in 2012. It comprises 100 experts from 25 countries and is hosted by the Zoological Society of London.

In 2016, an international body in charge of regulating wildlife trading worldwide acted to ban pangolin poaching, trafficking, and sales.

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Some rangers were caught helping hunters catch or kill high-value animals, but those caught doing this were said to be severely dealt with. Pixabay

All 182 member nations belonging to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) voted in favor of the ban.

The IUCN maintains a Red List of threatened, vulnerable, and endangered species.

All eight species of pangolins, four in Asia and four in Africa, are included on the IUCN Red List, with their designations ranging from vulnerable to endangered.

Populations of all of the species are said by scientists to be rapidly decreasing.

The African connection

On Jan. 31 this year Ugandan authorities reported seizing 750 pieces of elephant tusks and thousands of pangolin scales being smuggled into Uganda from neighboring Sudan.

Officials from the Ugandan Revenue Authority said that the smuggled items were hidden inside pieces of timber carried by three big freight containers.

Two Vietnamese men suspected of belonging to a smuggling ring involved in the case were arrested, the officials said.

The Associated Press quoted officials as saying that the elephant tusks were likely collected in neighboring Congo.

In Africa, elephants are threatened by demand for ivory products in China and other countries, including Vietnam. Africa had 1.3 million elephants in the 1970s but has fewer than 500,000 today, the AP said.

China has officially banned the ivory trade, but some ivory products continue to reach the country from Vietnam and elsewhere.

According to the Hong Kong-based Asia Times, while Vietnam made the trade of ivory illegal in 1992, the country is still a “top market” for ivory goods. They are largely used for decorations and are also used in traditional medicine.

Pangolin trafficking is also banned worldwide under an international treaty, but smugglers are known to bring pangolin scales to Hong Kong and then on into China. In early 2018, reporters from the French news agency Agence France Presse (AFP) reported that despite the international ban, Hong Kong shops were still selling pangolin scales, sometimes from behind stacks of boxes containing other goods.

The trade in pangolins shipped from the east-central African nation of Uganda is highly profitable. Smugglers can buy the pangolins at low prices in Uganda and sell them at high prices in China and Vietnam. Meanwhile, a market for them has also developed in Indonesia.

Before April’s record-breaking seizure of some 30,000 pangolins in Singapore, this year, customs officials made other sizable seizures in Malaysia and in Hong Kong in February. The Hong Kong haul included 8.3 tons of pangolin scales and 2.1 tons of ivory, in a shipment marked “frozen beef” from Nigeria, media reports said.

Why we should care about pangolins

First of all, pangolins, many of which are about the size of a house cat or small dog, are a threat to no one except to ants and termites, which they lap up with a long, sticky tongue.

They can fight off animal predators with their sharp claws and their scales, which act as a kind of armor when they curl themselves up into a ball.

But pangolins possess little defense against human predators, who can simply pick them up off the ground.

“They’re defenseless,” said Hongying Li, the China program coordinator with the EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit organization based in New York which is dedicated to research and protecting people and animals from infectious diseases.

Li said that eating pangolin meat is “a way of showing off. It’s a way of saying I am very rich. I can afford pangolin meat.”

Li also said that pangolins are “very important to the environment, because they eat a lot of ants and termites…”

He described ants and termites as “a disaster for the forest.”

No celebrity status

But as Martin Fletcher of the Daily Telegraph in London explained in a recent article, pangolins “lack the celebrity status of elephants, rhinos, and tigers.”

That, he says, “helps explain why so few westerners even realize they exist.”

In reporting his story, Fletcher decided to check out zoos but found that not a single British zoo houses any of them. Leipzig is the only zoo in Europe that has one and is one of only six zoos in the world that houses them.

Pangolins are shy, nocturnal creatures and often inhabit forests where it is difficult to spot, photograph, or study them. In captivity, they usually fail to adapt well to alternative foods.

But some prominent figures in Britain have taken note of them.

In 2014, Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge, teamed up with the makers of the game “Angry Birds” to create an online contest aimed at helping the pangolin.

In 2015, the prince noted that “the humble pangolin…runs the risk of becoming extinct before most of us have ever heard of it.”

In an episode of the BBC program “Natural World,” David Attenborough said that the Sunda pangolin was one of the 10 species that he would like to save from extinction.

Attenborough recalled rescuing one of these pangolins from being eaten while he was working on a film early in his career.

He described it as “one of the most endearing animals I have ever met.”

The Sunda pangolin’s main predators are humans, tigers, and the clouded leopard.

The animal spends much of its life in trees and is classified as threatened.

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He described ants and termites as “a disaster for the forest.” Pixabay

‘Wildlife under siege’

The best recent journalism to appear in English on the subject of endangered wildlife in Vietnam was published on April 7 in The New York Times’ travel section of all places.

The author Stephen Nash travelled through a national park in Vietnam which is the home to many rare animals, including pangolins.

He concluded that “wildlife is under siege” in Vietnam and that national parks “are often no refuge.”

Nash learned that pangolins command $500 a pound for their meat and scales in folk-cure apothecaries in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.

Park rangers and others with whom he spoke at the Cat Tien National Park affirmed that the animal populations in the park were declining.

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Some rangers were caught helping hunters catch or kill high-value animals, but those caught doing this were said to be severely dealt with.

The rangers earn something like $200 a month, a relatively low salary, which makes poaching an attractive career option, says Nash. (RFA)

Next Story

Here’s how China Invaded India with Its Technology

Chinese invasion decimates Indian mobile players, automakers next?

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China has slowly but strategically spread its roots in the Indian IT/technology and allied sectors in India. Pixabay

BY NISHANT ARORA

The Great Wall has slowly but strategically spread its roots in the Indian IT/technology and allied sectors in India, and there is no stopping the dragon which has only grown fierce — threatening industries after industries across the spectrum as India celebrates its 71th Republic Day.

From smartphones to automobile/electric vehicles, from digital payments and consumer electronics to social media, Chinese companies have created massive ripples in the country in the last couple of years, while American giants like Amazon and Facebook/WhatsApp face the political heat.

China, which is a fastest-growing trillion-dollar economy with a current GDP of $14.14 trillion is on the path to become a $20 trillion economy by 2024 and India is its “sweet spot” — with millions of consumers buying Chinese goods which has decimated domestic players in certain sectors.

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Xiaomi, a Chinese company has also established itself well in the country. Pixabay

Take the case of smartphone industry. According to Hong Kong-based Counterpoint Research, Chinese smartphone brands captured 72 per cent of the market in 2019 compared to 60 per cent a year ago.

Behemoth like the BBK Group (the parent company of OPPO, Vivo, Realme and OnePlus brands) captured 37 per cent market share while Xiaomi (along with Redmi and POCO brands) came second at 28 per cent.

Led by Xiaomi and BBK Group, the Chinese brands have invested heavily in manufacturing devices and accessories in India.

Xiaomi currently has seven smartphone manufacturing plants in India in partnership with Taiwanese multinational electronics company Foxconn and Singapore-based technological manufacturer Flex Ltd.

More than 99 per cent of smartphones that are sold in India are manufactured locally. Across these seven plants, Xiaomi has employed more than 25,000 people.

Xiaomi also locally sources and assembles PCBA (Printed Circuit Board Assembly) in India. It has invested in setting up smart TV manufacturing plant in partnership with Dixon Technologies in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The company last year infused Rs 3,500 crore into its Indian business unit.

Vivo has committed Rs 7,500 crore as part of its India expansion plan while Chinese company TCL is investing Rs 2,200 crore in Tirupati for plants that will produce mobile handsets and TV screens.

Amid the onslaught, where do you see domestic players like Micromax, Intex, Lava and Karbonn (known as ‘MILK’ brand)?

According to Navkendar Singh, Research Director, IDC India, while we cannot rule out any player making a comeback, especially in such a dynamic market like India, it looks nearly impossible for Indian mobile phones brands to win back any relevant portion of the market.

“China-based brands have been in India for almost 5 years plus now. In this time, apart from snatching the market share almost entirely from the other brands, they have gained immense knowledge about the workings of the India market in terms of consumer thinking, preferences, channel dynamics and marketing interventions,” Singh told IANS.

The Chinese brands are continuously committing resources and investments in all these key areas.

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As China keeps introducing its technology in India, automobile makers will be affected. Pixabay

“Moreover, with more than 3/4th of the market being with 5 players, it is becoming increasingly challenging for any new or old brands like Indian brands to attempt any sustained comeback,” Singh elaborated.

So what are the options for the Indian smartphone players?

“Indian brands can surely look at the feature phone segment, where almost all major China-based brands have chosen to stay away from (expect Shenzhen-based Transsion Group which is the leader). Also, their brand salience remains strong with that consumer segment and Tier II and III markets,” said the IDC executive.

Cut to the Auto Expo 2020 and you will have a better understanding of how Chinese companies muscle their ways.

Top Chinese firms such as SAIC (owner of MG Motors), BYD (maker of electric buses and batteries), Great Wall (which is the biggest SUV maker in China) and FAW Haima, among others, have reserved nearly 20 per cent space in the annual jamboree of carmakers and industry leaders, at a time when the Indian automobile industry is going through a severe slowdown.

Bucking the slowdown trend, SAIC has recorded healthy sales ever since it launched the Hector SUV. At present, the carmaker’s first offering SUV Hector has an order book of 20,000 bookings. It has till date sold nearly 16,000 units of Hector since its launch in July 2019.

The Chinese automobile major has now launched its first electric offering called ZS EV, at a starting price of Rs 20.88 lakh. The company said that it has secured an overwhelming response for the new-age electric SUV, with over 2,800 bookings in 27 days.

To let its EVs run smoothly in India, MG Motor India is building a five-way EV charging ecosystem in association with major domain players.

China’s leading EV company, Sunra, has expressed interest in setting up a factory in the country as it sees India emerging as the world’s biggest market for electric bikes in the next four to five years.

The EV firm has partnered with 16 private companies in Delhi. Nearly six e-bike models of Sunra are under the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) test and two of its models are available in some of the showrooms.

Also Read- New Stretchable Battery Can Safely Store Power for Wearables

According to a TechSci Research report, electric vehicle market in India is forecast to reach nearly $2 billion by the financial year 2023.

As the Indian government firms up its EV plans, Chinese companies have already set their eyes on the EV sector roadmap in the country. (IANS)

One response to “Here’s how China Invaded India with Its Technology”

  1. This is a win-win relationship.Is India losing anything? Indians get job, foreign investments, latest technology from China. Do you think local Indian companies have the latest technology? Of course not. Its time for India to open up more, absorb these technologies and then go for home grown solutions. In short do to China what Chinese did to West.