Tuesday January 23, 2018
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Paris Summit: Climate change not of India’s making, Modi says

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New Delhi: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the sidelines of United Nations conference on Monday said that India did not initiate the climate change threat rather it was under distress due to the effects thereof. He conveyed a stern message to the rich countries, stating, “those with the luxury of choices” ought to sharply reduce emissions.

Modi repeated his concerns at a clutch of fora with his cramped schedule squeezing in the much-talked-about unplanned meeting with Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. He also had a dialogue with the US President Barack Obama where the two countries decided that development and environmental safeguard must work simultaneously, stated a leading daily.

He, very specifically, mentioned that India was not be blamed for global warming, pointing out that the country was bearing the brunt of developed nations.

“Climate change is a key global gainsay and it is not of our creation. It is the result of global warming that came from prosperity and progress of an industrial age powered by fossil fuel,” said Modi at the inaugural event at the India pavilion at the summit, strengthening the country’s position in the face of latest US denunciation of India at the last summit.

He also pointed out the repercussions of global warming on India and the adverse effect it would have on the local farmers.

“But we in India face consequences. We see the risk to our farmers. We are concerned about rising oceans that threaten our 7,500 km of coastline and 1,300 islands. We worry about the glaciers that feed our rivers and nurture our civilisation.”

Modi further mentioned the age old rhetoric of developing countries to let developed countries take the charge of their misdeeds and play a larger role in rectifying them as compared to the rest. He remarked that India wanted a “comprehensive equitable and durable agreement”, highlighting a request of less-privileged nations who reiterated that the developed countries have been the major polluters over the years, they should assume a greater role in fighting global warming.

He evidently charted out India’s approach for the 10-day-long summit, stating that the developed world must offer easy access to cleaner engineerings, macroclimate investment and the right to carbon space.

He also pursued to resolve intellectual rights concerns in the exchange of cleaner technologies at the Innovation Mission hosted by US President Barack Obama, with additional leaders of state and industry such as Bill Gates and Ratan Tata among the ones present there.

PM Modi expressed his apprehensions from the developed states to offer carbon space for the developing world to grow. He also specified that the rich nations cannot negate the prospects for the poor in the world to develop.

Apart from the Prime Minister’s comments on climate change, he also had a transitory discussion with Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif at the beginning of the summit.

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Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wines

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Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wine
Climate change can have an effect on the taste of the wine. wikimedia commons

New York, Jan 3, 2018: Although winegrowers seem reluctant to try new grape varieties apparently to protect the taste of the wines, new research suggests that they will ultimately have to give up on their old habit as planting lesser-known grape varieties might help vineyards to counteract some of the effects of climate change.

vineyards. wikimedia commons

“It’s going to be very hard, given the amount of warming we’ve already committed to… for many regions to continue growing the exact varieties they’ve grown in the past,” said study co-author Elizabeth Wolkovich, Assistant Professor at Harvard University.

“With continued climate change, certain varieties in certain regions will start to fail — that’s my expectation,” she said.

The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggests that wine producers now face a choice — proactively experiment with new varieties, or risk suffering the negative consequences of climate change.

“The Old World has a huge diversity of wine grapes — there are overplanted 1,000 varieties — and some of them are better adapted to hotter climates and have higher drought tolerance than the 12 varieties now making up over 80 per cent of the wine market in many countries,” Wolkovich said.

“We should be studying and exploring these varieties to prepare for climate change,” she added.

Unfortunately, Wolkovich said, convincing wine producers to try different grape varieties is difficult at best, and the reason often comes down to the current concept of terroir.

Terroir is the notion that a wine’s flavour is a reflection of where which and how the grapes were grown.

Thus, as currently understood, only certain traditional or existing varieties are part of each terroir, leaving little room for change.

The industry — both in the traditional winegrowing centres of Europe and around the world — faces hurdles when it comes to making changes, Wolkovich said.

In Europe, she said, growers have the advantage of tremendous diversity.

They have more than 1,000 grape varieties to choose from. Yet strict labelling laws have created restrictions on their ability to take advantage of this diversity.

For example, just three varieties of grapes can be labelled as Champagne or four for Burgundy.

Similar restrictions have been enacted in many European regions – all of which force growers to focus on a small handful of grape varieties.

“The more you are locked into what you have to grow, the less room you have to adapt to climate change,” Wolkovich said.

New World winegrowers, meanwhile, must grapple with the opposite problem — while there are few, if any, restrictions on which grape varieties may be grown in a given region, growers have little experience with the diverse — and potentially more climate change adaptable — varieties of grapes found in Europe, the study said.

Just 12 varieties account for more than 80 per cent of the grapes grown in Australian vineyards, Wolkovich said.

More than 75 per cent of all the grapes grown in China is Cabernet Sauvignon — and the chief reason why has to do with consumers.

“They have all the freedom in the world to import new varieties and think about how to make great wines from a grape variety you’ve never heard of, but they’re not doing it because the consumer hasn’t heard of it,” Wolkovich said. (IANS)

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