Thursday December 12, 2019

Plastic Surgery: The Basics Explained

Commonly reported complications of plastic surgeries are wound infection, hematoma, scarring and those arising out of anesthesia

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Plastic surgery is becoming more and more popular today among the youth. Wikimedia Commons
Plastic surgery is becoming more and more popular today among the youth. Wikimedia Commons
  • Plastic surgery is becoming more popular among today’s generation
  • Although, plastic surgery has its benefits, there can be complications too
  • Plastic surgery should be a well thought decision and should not be taken in hurry
To remain beautiful is a never-ending desire in the life of humans. The field of plastic surgery has aided humans in this desire, be it to repair a defect or to enhance or reduce a part. All of these efforts are in order to please oneself and the ones human beings socialize with.
Man and these cosmetic procedures are not new to each other. The History of Plastic surgery dates to as early as 2000 B.C. One of the ancient Indian books on surgery by Sushrutha, called the Sushrutha Samhita, describes the reconstructive procedure Rhinoplasty, commonly known as the nose job. Even with so much of knowledge available online and offline about this field, some of us are still unaware of what goes on in a plastic surgical procedure.
Dr. Bharti Raizada conducted a telephonic interview with a practicing consultant, in an effort to shed light on some basic and correct facts.
The decision of going through a plastic surgery should be taken after great deliberation.
The decision of going through a plastic surgery should be taken after great deliberation.
Dr. Deepak Khatri, Consultant Plastic & Cosmetic Surgeon, MAE Aesthetics, based in Vadodara, India describes plastic surgery as a surgical specialty involving reconstruction, restoration, and alteration of the human body. He says it is a  broad specialty with multiple subspecialties like  Aesthetic surgery, Craniofacial surgery, Burns, Hand surgery, Microsurgery & Pediatric plastic surgery (dealing with congenital conditions such as cleft lip and palate, urethral defects, etc.).
When asked about the reason why this branch of surgery was called “plastics” and if there was any relation to the actual plastic, he goes on to explain that, of course, plastic was not involved and that it was derived from a Greek word “plastikos”, meaning ‘able to be moulded, pertaining to moulding’.
Dr. Deepak Khatri states that the most common surgeries people prefer are Liposuction ( removal of excess body fat to improve body shape and contour), Breast Augmentation, Rhinoplasty (nose reshaping), Hair transplant, Tummy tuck, Facelift etc.. He also states that the current trend is an increasing demand for more minimally invasive procedures, especially Botox for wrinkle reduction and Hyaluronic acid fillers for facial rejuvenation.
When asked about what the benefits were by undergoing a plastic surgery procedure, he says Improving appearance is one of the many. The other benefits according to Dr. Deepak Khatri are that the procedure helps to boost one’s self- image and overall well-being. Apart from psychological benefits he also says there are the actual physiological benefits gained like in the procedures of rhinoplasty or breast reductions etc.
A surgical procedure is never devoid of any risks. And Plastic surgery is no exception to this rule. The dependent factors of a successful surgery are the cleanliness of the hospital setup or the general health of the patient. Dr. Deepak also assents to this fact. He also states that the commonly reported complications are wound infection, hematoma, scarring and those arising out of anesthesia.
When we asked about his opinions on the popularity of the procedure in India, he opines that it is, of course, becoming a commonly performed procedure but would take some more time to become immensely popular.
Plastic surgery can have side effects like burning, infections on wounds, etc, too Pixabay
Plastic surgery can have side effects like burning, infections on wounds, etc, too Pixabay
The time lag to gain popularity might be connected to the fact that not all procedures are covered by insurance, a fact which is also confirmed by Dr. Deepak. Insurance only covers the reconstructive procedures in cases of trauma, burns etc.
When asked about his views on who would be considered an ideal Plastic surgeon and who would be regarded an ideal patient, he goes on to state that an ideal plastic surgeon is one who has had the formal training in the specialty and holds certifications. As it is a vast specialty, it is difficult to specialize in all subspecialties. A good patient-doctor rapport is essential for better understanding of the procedure and associated risks and complication. According to him, an ideal patient for plastic surgery would be someone who has realistic expectations regarding the outcomes of the procedure. He indicates that there might be times when the surgeons are pleased with their work, but not the patient, and vice versa. He expresses that it is of course very complex to manage a dissatisfied patient. He says it requires time and patience. He observes that the failure to satisfy a patient happens more due to a failure in communication and poor patient selection than due to technical errors. It is true, there are specific indications for each of these procedures, but he advises that having realistic expectations would avoid the disparity of the opinions on the outcomes between the surgeon and the patients.
The life of a Plastic surgeon is not easy. To become one,  in India, one needs to undergo a 3 years post-doctoral degree course (M. Ch) after a master’s degree (M.S). Dr. Deepak says, that the qualification would not suffice and that they need to refine their skills through fellowships, attending conferences workshops etc. and keep themselves updated always.
Dr. Deepak finally signs off with a note to the public stating that Plastic surgeries/Cosmetic procedures are generally safe. The need of the hour is a better understanding of the procedure from the plastic surgeon, and being aware. If the understanding and awareness levels are satisfied, it can then bring a change into our lives. Same Condition
https://www.samecondition.com/blog/plastic-surgery-before-and-after/

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Machine Learning Can Help Doctors to Improve End-Of-Life Conversation with Patients

A deeper understanding of these conversations, which are often freighted with emotion and uncertainty, will also help reveal what aspects or behaviors associated with these conversations are more valuable for patients and families

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Machine Learning
A Research used Machine Learning algorithms to analyze 354 transcripts of palliative care conversations collected by the Palliative Care Communication Research Initiative, involving 231 patients. Pixabay

Researchers at University of Vermont have used Machine Learning and natural language processing (NLP) to better understand conversations about death, which could eventually help doctors improve their end-of-life communication.

Some of the most important, and difficult, conversations in healthcare are the ones that happen amid serious and life-threatening illnesses.

Discussions of the treatment options and prognoses in these settings are a delicate balance for doctors and nurses who are dealing with people at their most vulnerable point and may not fully understand what the future holds.

“We want to understand this complex thing called a conversation. Our major goal is to scale up the measurement of conversations so we can re-engineer the healthcare system to communicate better,” said Robert Gramling, director of the Vermont Conversation Lab in the study published in the journal Patient Education and Counselling.

Gramling and his colleagues used machine learning algorithms to analyze 354 transcripts of palliative care conversations collected by the Palliative Care Communication Research Initiative, involving 231 patients.

They broke each conversation into 10 parts with an equal number of words in each, and examined how the frequency and distribution of words referring to time, illness terminology, sentiment and words indicating possibility and desirability changed between each decile.

“We picked up some strong signals,” said Gramling.

Conversations tended to progress from talking about the past to talking about the future, and from sadder to happier sentiments. “There was quite a range, they went from pretty sad to pretty happy,” Gramling added.

Machine Learning
Researchers at University of Vermont have used Machine Learning and natural language processing (NLP) to better understand conversations about death, which could eventually help doctors improve their end-of-life communication. Pixabay

The consistent results across multiple conversations show just how much people make meaning out of stories in healthcare.

“What we found supports the importance of narrative in medicine,” he said.

That knowledge could eventually help healthcare practitioners understand what makes a “good” conversation about palliative care, and how different kinds of conversations might require different responses.
That could help create interventions that are matched to what the conversation indicates the patient needs the most.

ALSO READ: Light Alcohol Consumption Might Also Increase Cancer Risk: Study

A deeper understanding of these conversations, which are often freighted with emotion and uncertainty, will also help reveal what aspects or behaviors associated with these conversations are more valuable for patients and families. (IANS)