Thursday April 9, 2020

India introduces injectable Inactivated Polio Vaccine

0
//

By Nithin Sridhar

Health Minister JP Nadda launched India’s first injectable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) on Monday. This marks the beginning of the shift from purely orally administered polio-vaccines or Oral Polio Vaccines (OPV) to a combination of dosages of OPV’s and IPV’s.

This is indeed a welcome move in the global fight against polio eradication.

One of the major disadvantages of OPV usage is that there is a chance that it leads to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Studies have shown that one child out of every 2.4 million dosages of OPVs administered will suffer from VAPP.

This disadvantage can be overcome by the administration of IPV dosages. IPV was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk in 1955. IPVs consist of killed poliovirus strains (as against live attenuated polioviruses in OPVs) of all three poliovirus types which are then used as vaccines. Hence, they produce antibodies in the blood that provide immunity against all three poliovirus types resulting in protection against VAPPS as well. Further, IPVs are considered very safe and efficient and there are no major side-effects.

This is not to say that, IPVs have no disadvantage. For a long time, polio eradication programs were using OPVs alone because IPVs were observed to be weak in providing intestinal immunity. Hence, if a person immunized with IPV becomes infected with wild poliovirus, then the virus can still multiply inside the intestine and come out in the feces resulting in its continued circulation. But, a recent study shows that, when IPV is used in combination with OPV dosages, then IPVs will boost intestinal immunity.

Thus, World Health Organization (WHO) no longer recommends OPV alone vaccination against polio. It recommends usage of at least one dose of IPV in countries which is using OPV only vaccinations. In polio endemic countries, it recommends usage of 1 OPV birth dosage, 3 OPV dosages and 1 IPV dosage. In countries with high immunization cover and low chances of importation of wild polio viruses, but with a significant VAPP concern, WHO recommends an IPV–OPV sequential schedule. It recommends IPV only vaccination only in those countries which have low importation as well as transmission risks along with very high immunization coverage.

Hence, India’s move in introducing IPVs is in sync with WHO recommendations. This step will go a long way in preventing VAPP and ensuring complete polio eradication from the world.

(Photo: www.erewise.com)

Next Story

Malaysia Launches Vaccination Campaign After 1st Polio Infection in 27 Years

The last case of polio registered in Malaysia occurred in 1992. Eight years later, the country was declared polio-free along with the other nations in the Western Pacific Region

0
polio
FILE - An Indian medical volunteer administers a dose of polio vaccine to a child in Hyderabad, India, Jan. 29, 2017. (Representational image). VOA

Malaysian health authorities on Monday launched a vaccination campaign in rural areas of the jungle-covered island of Borneo after detecting the first case of polio since the Southeast Asian country declared itself free of the viral disease in 2000.

The infected is a three-month-old boy in the town of Tuaran, who was hospitalized with fever and muscle weakness and tested positive for the virus on December 6, the Director-General of Malaysia’s Health Ministry, Noor Hisham Abdullah, said in a statement issued on Sunday.

“The patient is currently under treatment in an isolation ward and in a stable condition, but still requires respiratory support,” the official added in his statement.

Malaysia is the second Asian country to have recorded a polio infection this year after the Philippines, which declared an outbreak of the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) on September 19, reports Efe news.

polio
A child receiving vaccine drops. Wikimedia Commons

According to Noor Hisham, tests conducted by the World Health Organization’s Polio Regional Reference Laboratory in Melbourne showed that the virus detected in the Malaysian infant was genetically linked to the strain in the Philippines, which neighbours Borneo.

Noor Hisham said that a survey of polio-infected children in Sabah, one of Malaysia’s two states located on the north of Borneo, the world’s third-largest island, found that 23 out of 199 children aged between two months and 15 years had not been vaccinated.

Also Read: Around 56% Indians Fall Victim to Discount Scams During Online Holiday Shopping, Reveals McAfee

“This is a worrying situation, as the spread of polio can only be stopped with immunization,” he said. “Vaccination rates should always be higher than 95 per cent to prevent infection.”

The last case of polio registered in Malaysia occurred in 1992. Eight years later, the country was declared polio-free along with the other nations in the Western Pacific Region. (IANS)