Tuesday December 11, 2018

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes With The Help of Weight Loss

How weight loss can help stop Type-2 diabetes

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Weight Loss
Weigh yourself daily to lose weight. Pixabay
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Losing weight can lead to an early and sustained improvement in the functioning of pancreatic beta cells, which can help individuals with Type-2 diabetes to achieve remission, a study has found.

The findings suggest that weight loss normalizes fat metabolism in all individuals with Type-2 diabetes, but the more rapid loss of the capacity of beta cells to recover prevents some individuals from returning to a non-diabetic state.

“The knowledge of reversibility of Type-2 diabetes, ultimately due to re-differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, will lead to further targeted work to improve understanding of this process. This provides a major focus for cell biologists to make specific advances,” said Roy Taylor of Newcastle University in the UK.

“At present, the early management of Type-2 diabetes tends to involve a period of adjusting to the diagnosis plus pharmacotherapy with lifestyle changes, which in practice are modest. Our data suggest that substantial weight loss at the time of diagnosis is appropriate to rescue the beta cells,” he added.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

In a clinical trial conducted recently, nearly half of the individuals with Type-2 diabetes achieved remission to a non-diabetic state after a weight-loss intervention delivered within six years of diagnosis.

The study, published in the journal Cell Metabolism, reveals that this successful response to weight loss is associated with the early and sustained improvement in the functioning of pancreatic beta cells. This finding challenges the previous paradigm that beta-cell function is irreversibly lost in patients with Type-2 diabetes.

Some non-responders simply had not lost enough weight, but in those who had, it was not clear how their response differed from that of responders.

Also Read: Eating Fresh Fruits Everyday May Keep Diabetes at Bay

To find out, the team examined liver fat content, pancreatic fat content, blood concentrations of fats called triglycerides, and beta-cell function and found both groups lost these metabolic factors.

However, only the responders demonstrated early and sustained improvement in beta-cell function. Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin in two phases in response to an increase in blood glucose concentration, the researchers noted. (IANS)

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Gut Bacteria Has The Ability To Contribute to Diabetes

"Our findings show clearly how important the interaction between gut microbiota and diet is to understand our metabolism in health and disease," said Backhed

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Diabetes
98 mn Indians will have diabetes by 2030: Lancet. Pixabay

Gut bacteria has the ability to affect how cells respond to insulin and can thus contribute to Type-2 diabetes, says a new study.

The study explored that the gut microbiota of people with treatment-naive Type-2 diabetes can be linked to a different metabolism of the amino acid histidine, which is mainly derived from the diet.

This in turn leads to the formation of imidazole propionate, a substance that impairs the cells’ ability to respond to insulin. Therefore, reducing the amount of bacterial-produced imidazole propionate could be a new way of treating patients with such disease.

“This substance does not cause all Type-2 diabetes, but our working hypothesis is that there are sub-populations of patients who might benefit from changing their diet or altering their gut microbiota to reduce the levels of imidazole propionate,” said Fredrik Backhed, Professor at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

Diabetes
Representational image. Pixabay

For the study, published in the journal Cell, the research team involved 649 participants.

They used fecal samples and found that the microbiota of people with Type-2 diabetes produced imidazole propionate when histidine was added. However, this mechanism was not found in the diabetes-free control subjects.

Also read- Nearly 40 Individual HPV Types Linked to HIV Infection

“Our findings show clearly how important the interaction between gut microbiota and diet is to understand our metabolism in health and disease,” said Backhed.

The result also shows that gut bacteria from different individuals can lead to the production of completely different substances that may have very specific effects in the body,” he noted. (IANS)