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BY NEHA HEGDE
A combination of a number of discoveries of electro-magnetic waves, radio waves, the wireless telegraph, and the triode by technicians and scientists from different countries gave rise to the development of radio broadcasting. It took ten years for this, whose sole use was point-to-point telecommunication. Basically, from ship to ship and ship to shore.
Radio waves were identified by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz in the year 1886. Radio transmitters and receivers were invented in the year 1895; the radio was used commercially by 1900. The first voice and music signals over radio waves were transmitted in December 1906 from Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden presented a talk and music of one hour for technical observers and any radio amateurs who might be interested to know.
Radio was and still is the main media for mass culture. This shift from technological usage to social usage led to two major incidents. (World War I and World War II)
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Contribution of Radio in World War I
World War prompted the industrialization of wireless telegraphy. Secondly, in the United States, the radio created a communication environment in which amateurs could operate freely. ‘Hams’- wireless telegraphy hobbyists were used extensively during World War I. Radio broadcasting needed the mass production of receivers and marketing for it to be commercially viable. This came about during World War I largely because of military requirements. With World War I, the importance of the radio became evident and its usefulness increased practically. During the war, the military used it almost exclusively and it became a significant tool in sending and receiving messages to the armed forces in real-time, without the need of any physical messenger.
After the war, radio found its commercial base and was given a social form through a combination of several traditions. The earliest radio transmissions in 1915 were by universities to disseminate news. The first radio stations were set up in Pittsburgh, New York, and Chicago in the 1920s to broadcast about elections news sports events, and opera performances. By mid-1923 as many as 450 stations sprouted across the Unites States-all run by a poll of amateurs. These stations were later connected to AT & T to form the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in 1926. The following year, few independent stations clubbed together to form Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). The public service radio network, National Public Radio (NPR) was established much later. The British Government took the initiative to set up the BBC in 1920 as an autonomous public service corporation.
Contribution of Radio in World War II
During World War II, the radio once again played a key role for both the U.S. and the U.K. With the help of journalism, radio broadcasted the news of the war to the public. It was also a rallying source and was used by the government to gain public support for the war. In the U.K. it became the primary source of information after the shut-down of television stations. The way in which radio was used also changed the world after World War II.
Want to read more in Hindi? Checkout: चौथी बार अमेरिका की हाउस स्पीकर चुनी गईं नैंसी पेलोसी
The first daily news bulletin in radio was introduced in 1936, but, World War II entailed the growth of a national network and an external service, and the installation of high power transmitters to expand coverage. Nazi propaganda was coming through loud and clear, and it needed to be countered. Thus was established the practice of all news bulletin being broadcasted on the radio from one central newsroom. During the War Years, as many as 27 bulletins were broadcasted each day.
Further, the External Services as also a Monitoring Service were set up as part of the Military Intelligence Wing. These were delinked when the war ended, and in India, All India Radio was transferred to the Department of Information and Broadcasting in 1946, and it remained with that Department/Ministry until September 1997 when the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous statutory body, was continued under Prasar Bharati Act (1990).
It has played an impeccable role in the past and has been used to the fullest by people. The present-day scenario is different, though we have our new modern communications; radio has its own importance as well. There also exist new technological developments in the present-day radio. Timely, technologies change but their sole purpose remains the same.
What Is Bullying?
Bullying is a pattern of recurrent aggressive behavior in which one person (or a group of individuals) in a position of authority intentionally intimidate or abuse another individual to cause bodily or emotional harm to that other. Bullying may take place in either a physical or verbal manner. Bullied individuals, as well as those who bully others, may have long-term repercussions.
Bullying may occur anywhere, at any time, in person or online (cyberbullying), and can take many forms, including verbal, physical, and social. Bullies utilize their position of power — such as physical strength, knowledge of something embarrassing, or popularity — to exert control over or damage other people. Many people assume that bullying occurs solely during childhood; nevertheless, bullying does not necessarily stop after a person reaches the age of adulthood.
Bullies in adulthood can take the form of a threatening boss or colleague, a controlling partner, a relative, or any other type of person. Even in our personal and professional lives, we sometimes encounter adult bullies who can be harmful to our mental well-being.
Bullied individuals, as well as those who bully others, may have long-term repercussions. | Photo by Unsplash
How To Deal With An Adult Bully?
For obvious reasons, adult bullying can be a painful and challenging experience for anybody who finds themselves on the receiving end of such behavior. Knowing how to deal with the antics of a bully properly, on the other hand, may help you learn, develop, and feel better levels of confidence. When you find yourself in this scenario, one of the most crucial things to remember is that you must not exhibit the bully any signs of fear. This might be difficult, depending on the sort of bully you are dealing with, but bullies enjoy fear, encouraging them to continue with their terrible conduct.
Maintaining a sense of connection with other people while dealing with bullying is quite essential. Bullies usually see alone persons as easier targets since they have a smaller support network to challenge them.
Courage and a support network are significant advantages; but, reporting the bully is also an excellent line of action. Contrary to common opinion, just ignoring a bully does not always prompt them to cease their behavior. Adult bullies of all kinds often interpret being ignored as a sign of weakness, encouraging them to continue bullying. If someone is bullying you, don't be scared to speak out and report the individual.
No one can make you feel inferior without your consent ~Eleanor Roosevelt
Keywords: mental health, bullying, bully, bullied, courage, abuse, harass, support, cyberbully
Silver and gold have always been preferred when it comes to wearing jewellery. Right from the times of monarchy in India, wealth and riches have been associated with wearing gold and silver for the various properties they have. Copper is a metal that has always been worn by the poor. It is not a metal that carries a significant association with health or wealth, but wearing at least one article of copper is extremely beneficial for health.
Copper is a reddish-brown metal that cannot be worn on its own. It has to be worn in the form of an alloy to prevent a reaction. Copper oxidizes in air and forms a green layer on it when exposed, much like the Statue of Liberty. Usually, bangles, chains, or rings of copper always have brass and traces of silver in them which helps with stabilizing its reactivity.
Wearing copper with stones in it looks very aesthetic, but copper is not durable enough to hold the stones, which is why it is fashioned into elaborate designs and sold. Copper is very malleable, and over time, the bangle or ring will take the shape of the wearer's hand or finger.
A copper ring Image source: Wikimedia commons
Jewellery made out of copper can be an excellent health indicator. Copper helps metabolize bodily functions faster, and the wearer experiences relief from indigestion. It also soothes joint pain, headaches, and arthritis. Using copper utensils also aids those with deficiencies. Since copper is absorbed slowly into the body, there is no fear of causing any kind of imbalance.
Sometimes copper leaves a greenish tinge on the skin. This happens when it oxidizes with sweat. This stain can be washed away with soap and water, but the fact that it appears is noteworthy. It is an indicator of too much acidity in the body. Greenish skin appears when the wearer's diet includes too much meat or acidic foods.
Copper might not be a very attractive metal, but wearing it has a lot of benefits for the health. It regulates metabolism, assimilation, and indicates health. It is definitely a good idea to wear copper jewellery at least once in a while.
Keywords: Copper jewellery, Copper is a health indicator, Metabolism, Oxidation, Benefits of copper
By Md Waquar Haider
When popular smartphone brands like Xiaomi and realme entered the laptop market in India last year, they were expected to shake the existing giants, specifically under the Rs 50,000 category. However, chip shortage and supply crunch have somewhat dented their plans to make a significant mark to date. According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. The first one is a massive supply crunch in the laptop component market and only big brands are able to get volume and supplies.
The other factor is that the traditional players are very strong in the consumer laptop market. Top 3 players control more than 70 per cent of the market and strong portfolio, distribution, and channel reach as well as brand marketing has helped them massively. "New brands can surely make a dent in the consumer laptop market but are challenged by supply issues right now. Watch out for them in 2022 as and when supply situation eases up," Navkendar Singh, Research Director, Client Devices & IPDS, IDC India told IANS.
Dominated by HP Inc, Lenovo and Dell, the traditional PC market (inclusive of desktops, notebooks, and workstations) in India continued to be robust as the shipments grew by 50.5 per cent year-over-year (YoY) in the second quarter (Q2), according to IDC. Notebook PCs continue to hold more than three-fourth share in the overall category and grew 49.9 per cent YoY in 2Q21, reporting a fourth consecutive quarter with over 2 million units. Desktops also indicated a recovery as shipments grew 52.3 per cent YoY after recording the lowest shipments of the decade in 2Q20.
According to Prabhu Ram, Head, Industry Intelligence Group, CMR, driven by the pandemic and the associated accelerated pivot to remote work, learn and unwind culture, PCs have been witnessing heightened demand. "Despite the current supply chain constraints, PCs are here to stay in the new never normal. In the run-up to the festive season, established PC market leaders will continue to leverage their brand salience and gain market share," Ram told IANS.
According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. | Photo by Manuel on Unsplash
"On the other hand, there is a niche market for those new market entrants that are able to differentiate themselves from the competition in terms of features and value. "Alongside, they would need to back it with strong brand messaging to create awareness and recall amongst the target consumers," Ram added.
HP maintained its lead in the India PC market with a 33.6 per cent share as its shipments grew 54.2 per cent annually. Dell Technologies continued to hold the second position with a 22.1 per cent share and an impressive 86.1 per cent YoY growth in 2Q21. Lenovo maintained the third position with a share of 17.8 per cent in 2Q21.
Arvind Suraj, Research Fellow, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), said that there is always a trust issue with new brands. "You won't buy a laptop in 6 or 7 months just like smartphones. In this case, we often go for existing players. Brands like Lenovo, HP, ASUS and Acer have already gained our trust," he said. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Chip, shortage, laptop, market, India, Xiaomi, hp, dell, brands