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Radio was and still is the main media for mass culture. Unsplash


A combination of a number of discoveries of electro-magnetic waves, radio waves, the wireless telegraph, and the triode by technicians and scientists from different countries gave rise to the development of radio broadcasting. It took ten years for this, whose sole use was point-to-point telecommunication. Basically, from ship to ship and ship to shore.

Radio waves were identified by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz in the year 1886. Radio transmitters and receivers were invented in the year 1895; the radio was used commercially by 1900. The first voice and music signals over radio waves were transmitted in December 1906 from Brant Rock, Massachusetts, Canadian experimenter Reginald Fessenden presented a talk and music of one hour for technical observers and any radio amateurs who might be interested to know.

Radio was and still is the main media for mass culture. This shift from technological usage to social usage led to two major incidents. (World War I and World War II)

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Contribution of Radio in World War I

World War prompted the industrialization of wireless telegraphy. Secondly, in the United States, the radio created a communication environment in which amateurs could operate freely. ‘Hams’- wireless telegraphy hobbyists were used extensively during World War I. Radio broadcasting needed the mass production of receivers and marketing for it to be commercially viable. This came about during World War I largely because of military requirements. With World War I, the importance of the radio became evident and its usefulness increased practically. During the war, the military used it almost exclusively and it became a significant tool in sending and receiving messages to the armed forces in real-time, without the need of any physical messenger.

After the war, radio found its commercial base and was given a social form through a combination of several traditions. The earliest radio transmissions in 1915 were by universities to disseminate news. The first radio stations were set up in Pittsburgh, New York, and Chicago in the 1920s to broadcast about elections news sports events, and opera performances. By mid-1923 as many as 450 stations sprouted across the Unites States-all run by a poll of amateurs. These stations were later connected to AT & T to form the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in 1926. The following year, few independent stations clubbed together to form Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). The public service radio network, National Public Radio (NPR) was established much later. The British Government took the initiative to set up the BBC in 1920 as an autonomous public service corporation.

Coastal Defence Gun, Middle East, World War I, circa 1918. Unsplash

Contribution of Radio in World War II

During World War II, the radio once again played a key role for both the U.S. and the U.K. With the help of journalism, radio broadcasted the news of the war to the public. It was also a rallying source and was used by the government to gain public support for the war. In the U.K. it became the primary source of information after the shut-down of television stations. The way in which radio was used also changed the world after World War II.

Want to read more in Hindi? Checkout: चौथी बार अमेरिका की हाउस स्पीकर चुनी गईं नैंसी पेलोसी

The first daily news bulletin in radio was introduced in 1936, but, World War II entailed the growth of a national network and an external service, and the installation of high power transmitters to expand coverage. Nazi propaganda was coming through loud and clear, and it needed to be countered. Thus was established the practice of all news bulletin being broadcasted on the radio from one central newsroom. During the War Years, as many as 27 bulletins were broadcasted each day.

Further, the External Services as also a Monitoring Service were set up as part of the Military Intelligence Wing. These were delinked when the war ended, and in India, All India Radio was transferred to the Department of Information and Broadcasting in 1946, and it remained with that Department/Ministry until September 1997 when the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous statutory body, was continued under Prasar Bharati Act (1990).

ALSO READ: DD And AIR Gained Popularity In Pakistan In 2020

It has played an impeccable role in the past and has been used to the fullest by people. The present-day scenario is different, though we have our new modern communications; radio has its own importance as well. There also exist new technological developments in the present-day radio. Timely, technologies change but their sole purpose remains the same.


Photo by Ilayza Macayan on Unsplash

Bullying may occur anywhere, at any time, in person or online (cyberbullying), and can take many forms, including verbal, physical, and social.

What Is Bullying?

Bullying is a pattern of recurrent aggressive behavior in which one person (or a group of individuals) in a position of authority intentionally intimidate or abuse another individual to cause bodily or emotional harm to that other. Bullying may take place in either a physical or verbal manner. Bullied individuals, as well as those who bully others, may have long-term repercussions.

Bullying may occur anywhere, at any time, in person or online (cyberbullying), and can take many forms, including verbal, physical, and social. Bullies utilize their position of power — such as physical strength, knowledge of something embarrassing, or popularity — to exert control over or damage other people. Many people assume that bullying occurs solely during childhood; nevertheless, bullying does not necessarily stop after a person reaches the age of adulthood.

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Wikimedia Commons

Copper earrings

Silver and gold have always been preferred when it comes to wearing jewellery. Right from the times of monarchy in India, wealth and riches have been associated with wearing gold and silver for the various properties they have. Copper is a metal that has always been worn by the poor. It is not a metal that carries a significant association with health or wealth, but wearing at least one article of copper is extremely beneficial for health.

Copper is a reddish-brown metal that cannot be worn on its own. It has to be worn in the form of an alloy to prevent a reaction. Copper oxidizes in air and forms a green layer on it when exposed, much like the Statue of Liberty. Usually, bangles, chains, or rings of copper always have brass and traces of silver in them which helps with stabilizing its reactivity.

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Photo by Brian Kostiuk on Unsplash

Traditional players are very strong in the consumer laptop market.

By Md Waquar Haider

When popular smartphone brands like Xiaomi and realme entered the laptop market in India last year, they were expected to shake the existing giants, specifically under the Rs 50,000 category. However, chip shortage and supply crunch have somewhat dented their plans to make a significant mark to date. According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. The first one is a massive supply crunch in the laptop component market and only big brands are able to get volume and supplies.

The other factor is that the traditional players are very strong in the consumer laptop market. Top 3 players control more than 70 per cent of the market and strong portfolio, distribution, and channel reach as well as brand marketing has helped them massively. "New brands can surely make a dent in the consumer laptop market but are challenged by supply issues right now. Watch out for them in 2022 as and when supply situation eases up," Navkendar Singh, Research Director, Client Devices & IPDS, IDC India told IANS.

Dominated by HP Inc, Lenovo and Dell, the traditional PC market (inclusive of desktops, notebooks, and workstations) in India continued to be robust as the shipments grew by 50.5 per cent year-over-year (YoY) in the second quarter (Q2), according to IDC. Notebook PCs continue to hold more than three-fourth share in the overall category and grew 49.9 per cent YoY in 2Q21, reporting a fourth consecutive quarter with over 2 million units. Desktops also indicated a recovery as shipments grew 52.3 per cent YoY after recording the lowest shipments of the decade in 2Q20.

According to Prabhu Ram, Head, Industry Intelligence Group, CMR, driven by the pandemic and the associated accelerated pivot to remote work, learn and unwind culture, PCs have been witnessing heightened demand. "Despite the current supply chain constraints, PCs are here to stay in the new never normal. In the run-up to the festive season, established PC market leaders will continue to leverage their brand salience and gain market share," Ram told IANS.

a computer chip close up According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. | Photo by Manuel on Unsplash

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