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Dr. Tony Nader received his MD degree from the American University of Beirut, where he also studied internal medicine and psychiatry. He in his second book talks about how human physiology is associated with the Ramayana.
The book takes one of the most purely subjective and spiritual records of knowledge in our mythological references, the Ramayana, and compares it to one of the most objectively-studied and scientifically-described aspects of life, that is human physiology.
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Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was an Indian guru born in 1918, who was also a disciple of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati and the Shankaracharya in the Himalayas. He was the person who introduced ‘Transcendental Meditation’ in the west.
Ramayana is for full enlightenment; Ramayana is for perfection in every profession; Ramayana is for mastery over Natural Law; Ramayana is for the fulfillment of any desire, one may have. Ramayana is to create a perfect man, a perfect society, and a perfect world.
– Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Here, in this book, the Ramayana is not considered to be any kind of mythological text belonging to any particular religion, race, or belief. It is considered as a Natural Law having events and characters present in it revealing a story of every individual’s physiology. The Ramayana is a part of veda, term Veda in Sanskrit refer to knowledge. Vedic literature is considered to be an understanding of life and creating passed on to people from ancient vedic families in India.
The Ramayana revolves around Lord Rama who was an incarnation of lord Vishnu to kill the evil Ravana. Rama belonged to Ikshvaku race of slar dynasty and his parents were Dasharath and Kaushalya. Throughtout the story of Ramayana, Rama performed great deed of destroying negativity and following ethics. Maharishi explains that the story is
a description of total Natural Law—its characters and their actions and interactions unfold the story of Natural Law as it expresses itself into all aspects of creation.
Rama’s arrows associated with nervous system
Rama’s arrows always returned to his quiver, which which interprets the mechanism to inform the central nervous system about specific activities that take place around us. There are special sensory spindle fibres that enable information to be sent back to the brain describing how far the muscle has been stretched. On a cellular level, the return of Rama’s arrows demonstrates that the nerve cell is capable of renewing itself so that impulses can go out again and again.
Want to read more in Hindi? Checkout: कभी टीपू सुल्तान को राजपथ पर दिखाया था, अब श्री राम दिखेंगे
The ‘Dashavatars’ in the human physiology
- Matsya Avatar corresponds to the hormones that circulate in the body fluids.
- Kurma Avatar corresponds to the portal system located in the hypophysis of the brain, which sits in a structure called the sella turcica.
- Varah Avatar corresponds to the brainstem supporting the brain.
- Narasimha Avatar corresponds to the diencephalon in the centre of the brain.
- Vamana Avatar corresponds to the homonculus in the motor cortex.
- Parashuram Avatar corresponds to the amygdala, and his axe corresponds to the corpus callosum in the brain.
- Ram Avatar corresponds to the somato-sensory and supplementary sensory-motor cortex in the brain. The river Sarayu, which borders the city of Ayodhyå, corresponds to the middle cerebral vein.
- Krishna Avatar corresponds to the parietal lobe and sensory cortex in the brain.
- Buddha Avatar corresponds to the diencephalon and brainstem areas.
- Kalki Avatar corresponds to the temporal lobe, which sits on a horse-shaped structure called the hippocampus. The hippocampus corresponds to Kalki’s horse.
Ganesha in human physiology
In the ventral view of the brain we see the clear correspondence between Ganesh and the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. The face of Ganesha corresponds to the pons, eyes correspond to the roots of the trigeminal nerves, ears correspond to the cerebellum, trunk corresponds to the medulla, tusks correspond to the nerves at the base of the pons.
Mother divine in human physiology
The 4 arms of Saraswat¡ correspond to the 4 lobes of the brain. The 4 hands of Lakshm¡ correspond to the4 chambers of the heart. The 8 arms of Durga correspond to the 8 nerves that emanate from the sacral bone.
Tenali Ramakrishna, or Tenali Raman as he is more popularly known is Birbal's equivalent in South India. A court jester and a scholar exuding great wisdom, Tenali Raman was known as one of the greatest courtiers in King Krishnadevaraya's court.
The Vijayanagar Empire ruled a large part of South India between 1336 and 1646. In the 16th century, the kingdom rose to prominence under the eminent leadership of King Krishnadevaraya. His continuous victories against his enemies ensured a successful and peaceful reign for his subjects. As a patron of art and literature, many crafts and cultural assets thrived in the empire.
Krishnadevaraya's beloved courtier, Tenali Raman is the finest example of the splendour of the Vijayanagar empire. He was born in Tenali, a town in Andhra Pradesh. He lived here until he lost his father, after which his mother brought him to Vijayanagar. He was discovered for his excellent wit and wisdom, and appointed in the court. He was one of the king's ashtadiggajas (collective name for the eight poets and scholars).
A statue of Tenali Ramakrishna near a Municipal Office in Andhra Pradesh Image source: wikimedia commons
Tenali Raman as a scholar, published great texts of wisdom, which have now become artefacts of the Kingdom of Vijayanagara. But his fame does not lie in these achievements. He is known for the mischievous jester that mythical folklore portrays him to be. Through stories, many writers have used jokes to impart wisdom and morals to many generations of people. The stories of Tenali Raman are almost legendary in the Southern peninsula.
Textbooks have been written with his moral stories in mind, and these days, many self-help book are also incorporating his wisdom. His most popular stories are, 'Mother Tongue', 'Cursed Face', 'Saluting the Donkeys' and many more. Through these stories, Tenali Raman, in some way, brought about social justice. Perhaps this is why he is most beloved by many people even today.
Keywords: Tenali Raman, Vijayanagar empire, Krishnadevaraya, Jester, Wisdom
It must be noted that different religions and societies in Southeast Asia have alternative narratives of Ramayana, one of the greatest epic.
Here are some of the versions of Ramayana!
Dasaratha Jakarta: The Buddhist Version
Interestingly, this version of Ramayana does not mention Ravana at all and in fact, there’s no mention of Sita’s abduction, too. In this version, Dasaratha is the king of Benaras and not Ayodhya. Also, Rama and Sita leaves kingdom and go to the Himalayas and not forests. Then, after twelve years, Rama and Sita return back to Benaras and get married.
Paumachariya: The Jaina Version
In this version, Lakshamana is the killer of Ravana and not Rama. Here, Rama is an ardent follower of Jainism, and so he cannot be the killer of Ravana. Also, this version states an army of warrior and not monkeys, as stated in Valmiki’s Ramayana. Another interesting feature of this version is that Ramayana is not shown as a villain, rather a magnanimous king and follower of Jainism.
Gond Ramayani: The Gond Version
Gond is an adivasi clan belonging from Madhya Pradesh in India. Interestingly, in this version, the story begins from where Valmiki’s Ramayana ended; when Sita is rescued from captivity. Also, Bhima, one of the Pandavas from the epic of Mahabharata, is mentioned in this version. Unlike Valmiki’s Ramayana, Rama is not the protagonist in this version.
Ramakien: The Thai Version
This is considered as Thailand's national epic, and is still taught in some schools in the country. In this version, Ravana is shown as a learned scholar and a noble king in this version. Also, Ravana’s pursuit for Sita is depicted as true love. There are a lot of similarities between this version of Ramayana and Valmiki’s version, but this version lays a lot of emphasis on Hanuman.
When a baby is born in an Indian household-they invite hijra to shower the newborn with their blessings for their blessings confer fertility, prosperity, and long life on the child. But when that child grows up we teach them to avert their eyes when a group of hijras passes by, we pass on the behaviour of treating hijras as lesser humans to our children. Whenever a child raises a question related to gender identity or sexuality they are shushed down. We're taught to believe that anything "deviant" and outside of traditional cis-heteronormativity is something to be ashamed of. This mentality raises anxious, scared queer adults who're ashamed of their own identity, and adults who bully people for "queer behaviour".
Hijras are a community of people who include eunuchs, intersex, and transgender people. They worship the Hindu goddess of chastity and fertility, Bahuchara Mata. Most hijras, but not all, choose to undergo a castration ceremony known as "nirvana" in which they remove their male genitalia as an offering to their goddess. The whole community is vibrant with hundreds of people with hundreds of ways of expression, the true identity of a hijra is complex and unique to each individual. In India, hijras prefer to refer to themselves as Kinner/Kinnar as it means the mythological beings who excel at singing and dancing.
Hijras worship the Hindu goddess of chastity and fertility, Bahuchara Mata.homegrown.co.in
The hijra community works systematically, the community separates itself from the outside world and teaches lessons to the young ones in secret. Each community has a guru and the other hijras are their disciples or chela. The "hijra ways of life" are taught to the disciples in a secluded environment where they leave their families and live with other hijras in the community. More often than not hijras are thought of as nothing different from transgender and often referred to as transgender; however, scientifically these two terms denote a different class of people. Hijras are a part of the whole community of people with various identities and of spiritual and cultural values meanwhile, transgender merely refers to those people whose gender identity differs from the sex assigned to them at birth, they are a part of the community and do not represent the whole community.
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Historically and culturally the community has existed in the Indian subcontinent as long as the civilization has existed. There are mentions of hijra in The Mahabharata, a holy book of Hindus. Shikhandi who was neither male nor female is a mythological legend. In another version of Mahabharata Arjuna, one of the Pandavas was cursed to be the third gender by Urvashi, when he refused to be sexually involved with her. In a story by Padma Purana, it is seen that Arjuna transforms into a woman to take part in Krishna's mystical dance which only women can take part in. The Hijra figures are prominent in Indian Mughal History as well, referred to as Khwaja Siras and known for their loyalty to the ruler, they worked as the sexless watchdogs of the Mughal harems. They held important positions in court and various facets of administration during Mughal-era India, from the 16th to 19th century. The Hijra community is a testament to the sexual diversity that is integral yet often forgotten in Indian culture.
If the whole hijra community was looked upon with enamor and respect in our history, what happened that when we come across the community we look at them with contempt and are filled with a mixture of negative, fear, laughter, and odd emotions. It's owing to the fact that under British Raj, the Criminal tribes Act 1871 hijras were criminalized and the law was made to eradicate the whole community. However, these acts were abolished by the Indian government after independence, and by 2014, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh all had officially recognized third gender people as citizens deserving of equal rights where the third gender means individuals categorizing themselves as neither male nor female. Even though the progress is slow but in 2015 Madhu Kinnar became the first hijra mayor in India was elected in the city of Raigarh.
ALSO READ: India's first Residential Transgender
Although the hijra community was revered by society and is invited to births and weddings for religious and spiritual ceremonies, they still become victims of abuse and discrimination. Violence and hate crimes against the community have become common. They are deprived of education, job opportunities, seating in restaurants, etc. leading them to live in poor conditions barely surviving. They often have to resort to begging and prostitution to earn a daily living. The government has tried to address this issue by introducing bills for the protection of the hijra community, with prison terms and other punishments for those offending them, but there is little to no less effect on the social stigma against the community.
In India, the hijra community comes under the umbrella term LGBTQ+ and we notice that they lack voice and representation when it comes to LGBTQ+ rights. We need to understand that when we fight for LGBTQ+ rights we fight for the whole community, we fight for hijras who have been victims of violence, hate crimes, and disrespect from none other than the people of our society. And although hijras are a part of the LGBTQ+ community as a whole, they have an independent subculture of their own. It is worth every effort to know about them, to study about them, to befriend them, and to smile at them for they are every bit of human as we are and they have nothing but blessings in their heart.