Monday September 24, 2018

Raziya Sultan: First and the only Queen of Delhi

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By Harshmeet Singh

Though Delhi officially became the capital of India in 1911, its stature as ‘India’s heart’ had been established long before. A plethora of foreign rulers and Indian princes aspired to capture the seat of Delhi to proclaim themselves as the righteous rulers of India.

The Delhi Sultanate, as the Delhi ruling Persian speaking dynasties were called, witnessed some legendary rulers, one of whom was Raziya al-Din, or as the history fondly remembers her – Raziya Sultan.

The only woman to be ever crowned the ‘Sultan’ of Delhi, Raziya was truly an exception. After the death of Raziya’s father, Iltutmish, Rukn ud din Firuz, Raziya’s brother, was crowned the Sultan. However, he was killed less than seven months into the power. This brought Raziya to the throne – a move that didn’t go well with the powerful Muslim nobles who weren’t ready to accept a female ruler.

Though her rule lasted less than 4 years, it was enough to command a chapter in the Indian history. Minhaj-i-Siraj, the famous Persian historian commented that Raziya was “sagacious, just, beneficent, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endowed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king.”

Iltutmish was extremely fond of her daughter. He ensured that Raziya got the appropriate education and military training as a child. At the time of her birth, Iltutmish is believed to have said ‘This daughter of mine is better than many sons.’ Raziya took to the throne like it belonged to her all along. He set aside the customary veil and asked everyone to address her as ‘Sultan’ and not ‘Sultana’, since Sultana meant the wife of the Sultan. She adopted masculine costumes and led the army from the front. Though comparatively short, her rule was marked by upright law and order. She even managed to manipulate the strong nobles to oppose each other and not her.

With everything falling into place, Raziya looked set to take Delhi Sultanate to great heights under her reign. However, her fortunes took a sudden turn. Raziya had to leave for Bhatinda to tackle an uprising from the Turkish Governor of Lahore. While Raziya engaged in a battle against Malik Altunia (believed to be her childhood lover), who sided with the rebels out of jealousy arising due to Raziya’s closeness with Jalal-ud-din Yaqut, the nobles crowned her brother, Bahram as the Sultan of Delhi.

Raziya lost the battle and was imprisoned by Malik Altunia, who ensured that she was kept in royalty. Soon after, Raziya married Altunia and the couple rode back to Delhi to regain the lost throne. This turned out to be the last ride for the couple who were defeated and killed by Bahram’s forces.
Raziya’s legacy is as decorated by her love story as it is by her administrative skills. It was probably due to her courage to stand against the mighty nobles and her love for Delhi that she has been given such a special place in India’s history despite her short reign.

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This Exhibition Captures A City’s Colours During Monsoon

The West Bengal-born artist has participated in 16 international group art exhibitions.

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Artist Purnendu Mandal At Indian Habitat Centre.

With some of them almost a photographic reflection of daybreak after rain, artist Purnendu Mandal’s canvasses — currently on exhibition at Triveni Kala Sangam here — are a deluge of vivid warm colours that capture a city’s landscape after rain.

“It is almost like looking outside a window, but through a work of art,” Mandal told IANS.

Mandal’s 15 acrylic- and oil-on-canvass artworks – collectively titled “Reflections 3” – document the subtleties of urban life during the rains — first light in a city, storms, rickshaw-pullers and bus drivers resuming activity after a rainy day, and building silhouettes reflecting in the water-filled puddles.

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Purnendu Mandal’s Work

Also included are visual effects of the monsoon like rain drops, fog, wet climate, reflections in water and shades of dampness.

To that extent, “Good Morning Kolkata” (2018), a painting of a tram on a damp Kolkata street, with old buildings and bundles of electric wires adding to the realistic depiction, reflects a day in the city as one would experience it.

For Mandal, it is about making his canvasses a literal window to the seasonal changes a city undergoes.

“I try to paint cities season-wise. This exhibition shows the beauty of a city after and during the monsoon,” Mandal told IANS.

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Purnendu Mandal’s Exhibition’s Invite. Available on his social media

Mandal’s impressionistic style revolves around cities and seasons and his rich repository of art has been exhibited around the world.

Also Read: Save Skin During Monsoon, Avoid Smokey Eyes

“Thus, the current exhibition has scenes from Varanasi ghats, and Kolkata’s and Mumbai’s urban life,” he added.

The West Bengal-born artist has participated in 16 international group art exhibitions in Indonesia, UK, USA, UAE, Thailand, Taiwan, Bangladesh and Nepal, in addition to showcasing his work at Indian galleries including Jehangir Art Gallery, Nehru Centre Art Gallery, Lalit Kala Akademi, AIFACS Gallery, Triveni Art Gallery, Chemould Art Gallery, and Chitra Kala Parishath. (IANS)