Friday July 19, 2019
Home Opinion Remembering J...

Remembering Jallianwala Bagh martyrs: How British Raj toyed with the lives of Indians

1
//

Jallianwala_Bagh_Memorial

By Subir Ghosh

In just about a week’s time, the country should observe the 96th anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. On the afternoon of April 13, 1919, some 10,000 or more unarmed men, women, and children gathered, along with Baishakhi pilgrims,in the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab to protest against the arrest of two leaders. An hour after the meeting began, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar, arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi soldiers into the Bagh. Fifty of them were armed with .303 Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifles. Dyer had also brought two armored cars armed with machine guns; however, the vehicles were left outside, as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance.

The Jallianwala Bagh was surrounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had a few narrow entrances. Most of them were kept permanently locked. The main entrance was guarded heavily by the troops backed by the armoured vehicles. Dyer—without warning the crowd to disperse—blocked the main exits. On his orders, the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out. Dyer ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for nearly ten minutes. Cease-fire was ordered only when ammunition supplies were almost exhausted, after approximately 1,650 rounds were spent. Many people died in stampedes at the narrow gates or by jumping into the solitary well on the compound to escape the shooting. A plaque placed at the site after independence states that 120 bodies were removed from the well.

Dyer explained later that this act “was not to disperse the meeting but to punish the Indians for disobedience.”

Official sources gave a figure of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 dead. Dyer was initially lauded by conservative forces in the empire, but in July 1920 he was censured and forced to retire by the House of Commons. He became a celebrated hero in Britain among most of the people connected to the British Raj, for example, the House of Lords. The poet Rabindranath Tagore, as a mark of protest, renounced his knighthood (the title Sir) that the British Government had conferred on him a few years back. Let us forgive but not forget.

True, Dyer met his nememsis in Udham Singh, the great martyr and revolutionary, in a London street in 1940.

(The writer is a Principal at Bharatiya Vidya Bhaban, Asutosh College of Communication and Management in Kolkata)

  • Note- ten thousand strong crowd. One white English with sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi. This is parallel to Sultan Mahmood’s expedition from Gazni (Afghanistan)to India as many as fifteen times and as far Gujrat. This shows total and absolute contempt for any kind of resistance capacity of Indians that gets back to antiquity. Is there any reason to believe that things have changed today. Sheer majority is of no significance since one single hyena is enough to disperse a flock of thousand sheep or one sickly ringmaster is capable of whipping fifty lions in a circus ring. The brutal fact is- the present day Anglophonic Education and training designed for the rich and little education for the poor are creating an equivalent of a flock of sheep who can be dispersed by a single hyena.

SHARE
  • Note- ten thousand strong crowd. One white English with sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi. This is parallel to Sultan Mahmood’s expedition from Gazni (Afghanistan)to India as many as fifteen times and as far Gujrat. This shows total and absolute contempt for any kind of resistance capacity of Indians that gets back to antiquity. Is there any reason to believe that things have changed today. Sheer majority is of no significance since one single hyena is enough to disperse a flock of thousand sheep or one sickly ringmaster is capable of whipping fifty lions in a circus ring. The brutal fact is- the present day Anglophonic Education and training designed for the rich and little education for the poor are creating an equivalent of a flock of sheep who can be dispersed by a single hyena.

Next Story

79% Smartphone Users in India Using Over-the-Top (OTT) Apps

The OTT platforms installed on the devices are in addition to the casual entertainment apps such as YouTube and UGC

0
Hotstar is the most-penetrated OTT entertainment app with 49 per cent of smartphone users having it installed on their devices. Pixabay

Seventy-nine per cent smartphone users in India are using over-the-top (OTT) apps for entertainment and as many as four out of five users have at least one OTT entertainment platform on their device, a new report said on Thursday.

Hotstar is the most-penetrated OTT entertainment app with 49 per cent of smartphone users having it installed on their devices.

The OTT platforms installed on the devices are in addition to the casual entertainment apps such as YouTube and UGC (User Generated Content) platforms like TikTok and with such as penetration, OTT entertainment apps have become the ‘most-penetrated’ app category for smartphone users in India after social networking, chatting and e-commerce Apps, revealed the report by market research firm techARC.

“Over the past three years, we have seen a lot of enablement both from the smartphone OEMs as well as operators’ sides. This has facilitated the growth of OTT entertainment services as well as consumption.

Smartphone, Users, India
Seventy-nine per cent smartphone users in India are using over-the-top (OTT) apps for entertainment and as many as four out of five users have at least one OTT entertainment platform on their device. Pixabay

“While 4G has undoubtedly created this category, it has been complemented by the smartphone industry that has innovated to save every micron on the screen for full-screen viewing, backed by a powerful battery and stereophonic sound,” said Faisal Kawoosa, Founder and Chief Analyst, techARC.

One of the main factors for Hotstar’s growth has been its sports content, especially cricket.

Meanwhile, Amazon Prime Video has slightly better penetration than Netflix in India. Prime Video penetration is 15 per cent as compared to 13 per cent of Netflix.

Also Read- Apollo 11 Astronaut Michael Collins Returns to The Exact Spot where He Flew to Moon 50 Years Ago

This is a result of Amazon’s close relationship with some smartphone OEMs where Amazon apps like Amazon Shopping and Amazon Prime Video come pre-loaded in the device. (IANS)