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Remembering Jallianwala Bagh martyrs: How British Raj toyed with the lives of Indians

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Jallianwala_Bagh_Memorial

By Subir Ghosh

In just about a week’s time, the country should observe the 96th anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. On the afternoon of April 13, 1919, some 10,000 or more unarmed men, women, and children gathered, along with Baishakhi pilgrims,in the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab to protest against the arrest of two leaders. An hour after the meeting began, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, the military commander of Amritsar, arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi soldiers into the Bagh. Fifty of them were armed with .303 Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifles. Dyer had also brought two armored cars armed with machine guns; however, the vehicles were left outside, as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance.

The Jallianwala Bagh was surrounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had a few narrow entrances. Most of them were kept permanently locked. The main entrance was guarded heavily by the troops backed by the armoured vehicles. Dyer—without warning the crowd to disperse—blocked the main exits. On his orders, the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out. Dyer ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for nearly ten minutes. Cease-fire was ordered only when ammunition supplies were almost exhausted, after approximately 1,650 rounds were spent. Many people died in stampedes at the narrow gates or by jumping into the solitary well on the compound to escape the shooting. A plaque placed at the site after independence states that 120 bodies were removed from the well.

Dyer explained later that this act “was not to disperse the meeting but to punish the Indians for disobedience.”

Official sources gave a figure of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 dead. Dyer was initially lauded by conservative forces in the empire, but in July 1920 he was censured and forced to retire by the House of Commons. He became a celebrated hero in Britain among most of the people connected to the British Raj, for example, the House of Lords. The poet Rabindranath Tagore, as a mark of protest, renounced his knighthood (the title Sir) that the British Government had conferred on him a few years back. Let us forgive but not forget.

True, Dyer met his nememsis in Udham Singh, the great martyr and revolutionary, in a London street in 1940.

(The writer is a Principal at Bharatiya Vidya Bhaban, Asutosh College of Communication and Management in Kolkata)

  • Note- ten thousand strong crowd. One white English with sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi. This is parallel to Sultan Mahmood’s expedition from Gazni (Afghanistan)to India as many as fifteen times and as far Gujrat. This shows total and absolute contempt for any kind of resistance capacity of Indians that gets back to antiquity. Is there any reason to believe that things have changed today. Sheer majority is of no significance since one single hyena is enough to disperse a flock of thousand sheep or one sickly ringmaster is capable of whipping fifty lions in a circus ring. The brutal fact is- the present day Anglophonic Education and training designed for the rich and little education for the poor are creating an equivalent of a flock of sheep who can be dispersed by a single hyena.

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  • Note- ten thousand strong crowd. One white English with sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Balochi. This is parallel to Sultan Mahmood’s expedition from Gazni (Afghanistan)to India as many as fifteen times and as far Gujrat. This shows total and absolute contempt for any kind of resistance capacity of Indians that gets back to antiquity. Is there any reason to believe that things have changed today. Sheer majority is of no significance since one single hyena is enough to disperse a flock of thousand sheep or one sickly ringmaster is capable of whipping fifty lions in a circus ring. The brutal fact is- the present day Anglophonic Education and training designed for the rich and little education for the poor are creating an equivalent of a flock of sheep who can be dispersed by a single hyena.

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Social Video app TikTok Reaches 1.5 Billion Downloads Worldwide

To recall, TikTok crossed the 1 billion downloads milestone in February 2019, taking just under nine months to generate a further 500 million installs

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TikTok
The logo of the TikTok application is seen on a screen in this picture illustration taken Feb. 21, 2019. VOA

Social video app TikTok has reached 1.5 billion downloads worldwide on the App Store as well as Google Play and India leads the chart with 466.8 million or about 31 per cent of all unique installs.

In 2019, the app accumulated 614 million downloads — six per cent more than it had last year, reported mobile intelligence firm Sensor Tower.

India has been a fast adoptor in 2019, driving up 277.6 million downloads so far this year, or roughly 45 per cent of all global installs.

China generated the second largest amount of downloads with 45.5 million, or 7.4 percent, while the US is No 3 with 37.6 million installs, or about 6 per cent, this year.

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TikTok has over 54 million monthly active users (MAUs) in India. Pixabay

The figure does not include installs from third-party Android stores in the country, said Sensor Tower.

TikTok with 614 million downloads currently is the third-most downloaded non-gaming app of the year, behind WhatsApp at the top with 707.4 million installs and Facebook Messenger at second spot with 636.2 million.

Also Read: Tech Giant Apple Issues Firmware Update for AirPods Pro

Facebook is fourth with 587 million downloads and Instagram at fifth spot with 376.2 million.

To recall, TikTok crossed the 1 billion downloads milestone in February 2019, taking just under nine months to generate a further 500 million installs. (IANS)