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Remote Sensors on Earth, Air, Water to Alert Authorities of Firefighting

More than 100 cameras provide a view of 60 percent of the company's service area in Southern and Central California

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firefighting, remote sensors
Burned trees surround a destroyed home leaving only the fireplace in Point Dume in Malibu, California, Nov. 11, 2018. VOA

Wildfires are often discovered by aircraft pilots, drivers or spotters in observation towers. Increasingly, remote sensors — on the ground, in the air and on board satellites — are alerting authorities when fires break out, and experts say technology will increasingly be a part of the future of firefighting.

A blaze that raged last August in a canyon near Los Angeles threatened vital communications links. Remote cameras gave firefighters crucial information to save the installations, said Troy Whitman of Southern California Edison, an electric utility company.

Whitman serves as a liaison with firefighting agencies, and he shares information from a new camera network that Edison installed throughout much of its service area. Those 13 million hectares are challenging, he said, “mountains, deserts, very remote areas where fires may not be detected for minutes, sometimes even days in the forest if it’s a lightning strike.”

firefighting, remote sensors
Spotting fires from the Earth, Air and Space. VOA

Electronic lookouts

More than 100 cameras provide a view of 60 percent of the company’s service area in Southern and Central California. More cameras are on their way, all monitored in an operations center in suburban Los Angeles, where remote spotters watch computer monitors and meteorologists track weather data from remote sensing stations.

Fires up and down the U.S. West Coast are getting fiercer, and 10 of California’s 20 most destructive blazes have occurred since 2015. A California report last month, “Wildfires and Climate Change,” said the state’s fire season has become nearly year-round, and one-quarter of the California’s population lives in fire-prone areas.

“Climate is changing,” said Brian Chen, who manages Edison’s wildfire mitigation efforts. “We’ve had many years of drought leading up to this, which has caused millions of trees across the state to die or be weakened because of disease,” he added. “We’ve also had a history of fire suppression policy, which has not kept our forests healthy,” he said.

More residents are also living closer to wilderness areas, in places like Paradise, a once idyllic northern California town destroyed by wildfire in November. At least 85 people died and 14,000 homes were destroyed by the so-called Camp Fire, which investigators announced Wednesday was sparked by the transmission lines of another utility, Pacific Gas and Electric.

At least half of the state’s most destructive 20 fires have been caused by power lines or electrical equipment, and spread because they started in isolated areas that were difficult for firefighters to reach. California fire officials say electrical mishaps account for a smaller proportion of all wildfires, and blame others on careless debris burning, out-of-control campfires, arson or smoking.

Southern California Edison is upgrading its infrastructure, replacing bare transmission lines with insulated cables. Pacific Gas and Electric also plans to install new cameras and weather stations. Both companies face lawsuits over recent wildfires, and Pacific Gas and Electric filed for bankruptcy in January, facing billions of dollars in claims.

Destructive fires are also tracked by NASA, the U.S. space agency, which also monitors the health of our planet using “aircraft observations … from manned aircraft and unmanned aircraft,” said Vince Ambrosia of NASA’s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. He says the main focus today, however, is on satellite data retrieved by NASA and its partners, including the European Space Agency, and shared with the public and global firefighters. The information helps before, during and after a wildfire.

“We can do active fire detection,” said Natasha Stavros of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “We can also do observations of the type of vegetation that’s there,” she said, assessing moisture content and how readily vegetation will burn.

firefighting, remote sensors
FILE – Homes leveled by the Camp Fire line Valley Ridge Drive in Paradise, Calif., Dec. 3, 2018. VOA

She says an instrument called GEDI has been sent to the International Space Station to measure levels of biomass, the trees and brush that provide fuel for fires, by monitoring how forests store and release carbon. Other satellites track the height of flames and the spread of smoke and other pollutants.

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Airborne and space-based sensors provide real-time data, and NASA and its partner agencies have built a “long-term collection library … going back to the 1980s to look at transitioning stages of wildfires throughout our last 50 years or so,” Ambrosia said.

Experts say that fire is part of nature’s ecosystem, but fire season is getting longer and fires more intense, and remote sensing helps firefighters deal with the challenge. The last month’s California report on wildfires recommends increased use of advanced imaging from the air and space, artificial intelligence to enhance data analysis, and a more comprehensive approach to fire prevention and response. (VOA)

Next Story

Amazon Wildfires Should be At Top of Group of Seven (G-7) Summit Agenda: French President

Brazil's ultra-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, is accusing his French counterpart of having a "colonialist mentality"

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Amazon, Wildfires, G7
This satellite image provided by NASA shows the fires in Brazil on Aug. 20, 2019. As fires raged in the Amazon rainforest, the government denounced critics who say President Jair Bolsonaro is not doing enough. VOA

Brazil’s ultra-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, is accusing his French counterpart of having a “colonialist mentality” for saying the Amazon wildfires should be at the top of the Group of Seven (G-7) summit agenda.

“The French president’s suggestion that Amazon issues be discussed at the G-7 without participation by the countries in the region evoke a colonialist mentality that is out of place in the 21st century,” Bolsonaro tweeted Thursday.

He said countries that send money to Brazil for the Amazon are not doing it out of charity but “with the aim of interfering with our sovereignty.”

Thousands of wildfires burning in the Amazon rainforest threaten to wipe out large parts of a vital and irreplaceable ecosystem.

Amazon, Wildfires, G7
Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro speaks at the opening of the Brazilian Steel Congress, in Brasilia, Brazil, Aug. 21, 2019. VOA

“Our house is burning. Literally,” French President Emmanuel Macron tweeted Thursday. “The Amazon rainforest, the lungs which produces 20% of our planet’s oxygen, is on fire. It is an international crisis.”

Images from U.S. satellites show smoke blanketing South America from the thousands of fires burning in the Amazon.

U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres says he is very concerned and the Bishops Conference for Latin America Thursday said the fires are a “tragedy” and called on the world to take immediate action to protect the Amazon.

Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research reported this week it has spotted about 73,000 fires in the Amazon so far this year — an 83% surge over the first eight months of 2018.Environmentalists put much of the blame on Bolsonaro, saying he encourages farmers and others to burn land for development and pasture.

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They decry what they say are his anti-environment stance in favor of oil, mineral, logging and ranching interests. Bolsonaro has called the Amazon an economic resource that should be exploited.

With no evidence to back it up, Bolsonaro has accused nongovernmental organizations that have lost funding of deliberately setting the fires to “try to take me down.”

But he said Thursday that farmers may have illegally set fires.

Bolsonaro also said his government lacks the resources to fight the fires in such a huge area.

Amazon, Wildfires, G7
French President Emmanuel Macron pauses after greeting Britain’s Prime Minister Boris Johnson at the Elysee Palace, Aug. 22, 2019 in Paris. VOA

Brazilian prosecutors say they will investigate allegations that the government has cut back on monitoring and enforcing environmental laws in the Amazon. They also plan to look into who was behind a newspaper advertisement in Para state encouraging farmers to set fires and burn large areas.

The Amazon rainforest is the world’s biggest ecosystem and irreplaceable. Environmentalists call it “the world’s lungs” because it creates 20% of the globe’s oxygen and is able to absorb carbon dioxide, the gas primarily responsible for global warming.

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The Amazon is also home to much of Brazil’s indigenous population and thousands of species of mammals, birds and reptiles. (VOA)