Sunday December 8, 2019

Research Identifies Genes Linked to Heart Failure

The research, published journal Circulation, suggests that genetic factors significantly influence the variation in heart structure and function

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Genes
The Study has shown that several Genes known to be important in heart failure also appear to regulate the heart size and function in healthy people. Pixabay

Researchers have found the Genes for earlier identification of people at risk of heart failure and development of new treatments.

The research team applied an artificial intelligence (AI) technique to analyse the heart MRI images of 17,000 healthy UK Biobank volunteers and found that genetic factors accounted for 22-39 per cent of variation in the size and function of the heart’s left ventricle, the organ’s main pumping chamber.

Enlargement and reduced pumping function of the left ventricle can lead to heart failure, the study said.

“It is exciting that the state-of-the-art AI techniques now allow rapid and accurate measurement of the tens of thousands of heart MRI images required for genetic studies,” said study lead researcher Nay Aung from Queen Mary University of London.

“The findings open up the possibility of earlier identification of those at risk of heart failure and of new targeted treatments,” Aung said.

The research, published journal Circulation, suggests that genetic factors significantly influence the variation in heart structure and function.

The team identified 14 regions in the human genome associated with the size and function of the left ventricle – each containing genes that regulate the early development of heart chambers and the contraction of heart muscle.

Genes
Researchers have found the Genes for earlier identification of people at risk of heart failure and development of new treatments. Pixabay

Previous studies have shown that differences in the size and function of the heart are partly influenced by genes but the researchers have not really understood the extent of that genetic influence.

This study has shown that several genes known to be important in heart failure also appear to regulate the heart size and function in healthy people.

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“That understanding of the genetic basis of heart structure and function in the general population improves our knowledge of how heart failure evolves,” said study researcher Steffen Petersen. (IANS)

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Genetic Variations Influence Risk of Developing Cancer: Study

Study found that variations in the regions that regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes affect cancer risk

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Cancer
While minor genetic changes only have a small impact on Cancer risk, the variations analysed in this study are numerous and common in the population. Pixabay

Shedding new light on why some people develop cancer while others do not, a new study has found that a person’s risk of developing cancer is affected by Genetic variations in regions of DNA that do not code for proteins, previously dismissed as “junk DNA”.

This study, published in the British Journal of Cancer, shows that inherited cancer risk is not only affected by mutations in key cancer genes, but that variations in the DNA that controls the expression of these genes can also drive the disease.

The researchers believe that understanding how non-coding DNA affects the development of this disease could one day improve genetic screening for cancer risk.

And in the future, this could lead to new prevention strategies, or help doctors diagnose the disease earlier, when it is more likely to be treated successfully.

“What we found surprised us as it had never been reported before — our results show that small genetic variations work collectively to subtly shift the activity of genes that drive cancer,” said lead researcher of the study John Quackenbush, Professor at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in the US.

Genetic
Shedding new light on why some people develop Cancer while others do not, a new study has found that a person’s risk of developing cancer is affected by genetic variations in regions of DNA that do not code for proteins, previously dismissed as “junk DNA”. Pixabay

“We hope that this approach could one day save lives by helping to identify people at risk of cancer, as well as other complex diseases,” Quackenbush said.

The researchers investigated 846 genetic changes within non-coding stretches of DNA, identified by previous studies as affecting cancer risk.

These Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are particular positions in the human genome where a single letter of the genetic code varies between people.

Unlike mutations in coding DNA, such as BRCA, that are rare but significantly raise a person’s risk of developing cancer, non-coding SNPs are relatively common in the population but only slightly increase cancer risk.

The team analysed whether there was a correlation between the presence of a particular SNP and the expression of particular genes.

In total, they looked at over six million genetic variants across 13 different body tissues.

Genetic
The researchers believe that understanding how non-coding DNA affects the development of this disease could one day improve genetic screening for cancer risk. Pixabay

They found that variations in the regions that regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes affect cancer risk.

The study also revealed that these cancer-risk SNPs tend to be specifically located in regions that regulate the immune system and tissue-specific processes — highlighting the importance of these cellular processes to the development of cancer.

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“While minor genetic changes only have a small impact on cancer risk, the variations analysed in this study are numerous and common in the population,” said Emily Farthing, senior research information manager at British charity Cancer Research UK. (IANS)