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A team of researchers has used Artificial Intelligence (AI) to turn two-dimensional (2D) images into stacks of virtual three-dimensional (3D) slices showing activity inside organisms.
Using deep learning techniques, the team from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting.
In a study published in the journal Nature Methods, the scientists also reported that their framework, called “Deep-Z,” was able to fix errors or aberrations in images, such as when a sample is tilted or curved.
Further, they demonstrated that the system could take 2D images from one type of microscope and virtually create 3D images of the sample as if they were obtained by another, more advanced microscope.
“This is a very powerful new method that is enabled by deep learning to perform 3D imaging of live specimens, with the least exposure to light, which can be toxic to samples,” said senior author Aydogan Ozcan, UCLA chancellor’s professor of electrical and computer engineering.
In addition to sparing specimens from potentially damaging doses of light, this system could offer biologists and life science researchers a new tool for 3D imaging that is simpler, faster and much less expensive than current methods.
The opportunity to correct for aberrations may allow scientists studying live organisms to collect data from images that otherwise would be unusable.
Investigators could also gain virtual access to expensive and complicated equipment, said researchers.
“Deep-Z” was taught using experimental images from a scanning fluorescence microscope, which takes pictures focused at multiple depths to achieve 3D imaging of samples.
In thousands of training runs, the neural network learned how to take a 2D image and infer accurate 3D slices at different depths within a sample.
Then, the framework was tested blindly – fed with images that were not part of its training, with the virtual images compared to the actual 3D slices obtained from a scanning microscope, providing an excellent match.
The researchers also found that Deep-Z could produce 3D images from 2D surfaces where samples were tilted or curved.
“This feature was actually very surprising,” said Yichen Wu, a UCLA graduate student who is co-first author of the publication. “With it, you can see through curvature or other complex topology that is very challenging to image.” (IANS)
Indian astronomers have found an active galaxy in a very bright state with 10 times more X-ray emission than normal, equivalent to more than 10 trillion of the sun, and located five billion light years away that could help probe how particles behave under intense gravity and acceleration to the speed of light.
It could help study the role of strong gravity and acceleration of matter in the formation, interaction and evolution of galaxies in the early universe.
Every galaxy in the universe is believed to host a supermassive black hole at its centre. In some galaxies, the black hole is actively devouring a large amount of material and shooting a jet of plasma almost at the speed of light towards us. These are called blazars.
OJ 287 belongs to a class of blazars known as BL Lacertae objects which show very rapid and large amplitude flux variations but barely discernible emission line features.
This class of sources emit in the whole electromagnetic spectrum, a rather uncommon phenomenon which requires extreme physical conditions. Hence, a study of such sources tells us about the behaviour of matter in an extreme gravitational field where it is difficult for light to escape from the vicinity of the black hole.
Astronomers at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, have been monitoring one such black hole system named 'OJ 287' since 2015. This source shows a repeated optical brightness enhancement almost every 12 years.
"The repeated optical enhancement makes OJ 287 very intriguing as this class of sources does not show any repeating features in flux variations. The repeated optical enhancement made the researchers believe that the system hosts a binary black hole," said a release from the Ministry of Science and Technology.
In 2020, the source was very bright at optical and X-ray bands with X-ray flux more than 10 times the normal (non-active phase) flux. This flare was very different as it was not expected in models proposed for this source and thus, indicated a more complex system and physical conditions.
Investigating the extreme brightness shown by OJ 287 at optical and X-ray bands, astronomers led by Pankaj Kushwaha and Alok C. Gupta reported the source in a completely new spectral state.
The team argued that this change of state holds clues to the researcher's quest to understand how matter behaves in very strong gravity and how it accelerates the particle to almost the speed of light -- a feat that is out of the scope of even the most advanced CERN accelerator.
The research published in 'The Astrophysical Journal' tracked the details of changes in optical to the X-ray emission spectrum of the source with time from 2017 to 2020 -- after the second brightest X-ray flare of the source. It revealed how the source gradually started to change its spectral behaviour from mid-2018 to the new spectral state in 2020.
The study included data recorded by the ground-based facility operated by Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, operated Mount Abu observing facility in near infra-red bands and the space-based NASA's satellites -- the Niels Gherel Swift satellite at optical, UV and X-rays with gamma ray data from the Fermi satellite, the release added. (IANS/JB)
Keywords: Science, NASA, Satellites, Black Hole, Gravity, India
Who doesn't like reading, and that, too, reading along the company of mother nature? Well, this book club is truly a fantasy turned to reality.
As said by a regular reader at the Silent Book Club, “There is something meditative about reading. Sitting quietly with a book, without any distractions, is almost spiritual for me," this exactly is the case with many such readers.
In fact, many people say that because of their busy schedules, they hardly find any time to read. And also, those who used to read for hours, now get easily distracted by the constant pinging of social media notifications.
Those who used to read for hours, now get easily distracted by the constant pinging of social media notifications. Photo by Pixabay.
So, seeing the need to spread awareness about the significance of reading, Rachna Kalra, who hails from Gurugram (Haryana), started the Silent Book Club in the year 2019.
In a statement, she said, “I read about this concept and it appealed to me. As I grow older, I would rather sit and enjoy a book I love than skim through book recommendations."
Interestingly, the original club was founded by Guinevere de la Mare and Laura Gluhanich in San Francisco. But later on, the club established multiple chapters across the globe because of its significant objective and relatability.
Well, there is no doubt that reading is something which opens up the gates different worlds, and hence, with this motive, this club was established in Delhi-NCR.
The members of this club met at Sidecar in Greater Kailash-2 for the first time. “The best part about the club is that we don't have a theme. We create an environment where you can just come and read. Anyone can bring a book - an e-book, even a comic - and read it, as long as they have their phones kept aside to avoid distraction. No one is forced to read anything they do not like" said Kalra, founder of the Silent Book Club.
Now, selecting the place for meet is one of the most important steps, and the club's favourite winter meeting space is the Capital's Sunder Nursery.
In an environment of greenery and constant chirping of the birds, the members of the club remain in peaceful silence and keep reading their respective books.
Tentatively, the next meeting will take place on December 18 at the Sunder Nursery.
(Keywords: Books, Reading, Silent Book Club, Delhi, Sunder Nursery, Gurugram.
A Travel Sustainable badge, provides highly coveted information to travellers all over the world looking to make more sustainable travel choices. Booking.com has launched the Travel Sustainable Badge, a first of its kind in the industry, designed to be applicable to a wide range of property types, from apartments, B&Bs, and vacation homes to hotels, resorts, and even treehouses, and adaptable to local realities and considerations.
Ninety-eight per cent of Indian travellers say they want to stay in a sustainable accommodation in the coming year, and with more than 28 million listings on Booking.com, the company sees a huge opportunity to highlight more of the impactful efforts its partners are making to create more sustainable experiences, making it easier for travellers to find a sustainable way to stay.
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With 88 percent of Indian travellers indicating that they would be more likely to choose a specific accommodation that implements sustainable practices, it rewards and encourages providers to take the next steps on their individual sustainability journeys.
Also Read : Travelling made easy with these tips
"Building a truly sustainable travel industry will take time, coordination, and concerted effort," said Marianne Gybels, Director of Sustainability at Booking.com. "However, progress is possible through continued innovation, partner support, and industry collaboration."
"We are recognising the sustainability efforts of a broader range of properties globally in a credible and transparent manner for consumers." We've inspired even more of our partners to take the next step toward more sustainable operations.Unsplash
"We are recognising the sustainability efforts of a broader range of properties globally in a credible and transparent manner for consumers." Displaying the practices they have in place allows everyone to make a more informed and hopefully more sustainable decision for their next trip, no matter where they want to go. As a result, we've inspired even more of our partners to take the next step toward more sustainable operations." (IANS/SP)
Keywords : sustainable, travel, environment, tourists, tourism, accommodation, experience, travellers.
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