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The scientific community has long acknowledged that vaccination work and have saved millions of lives. However, a vocal community, particularly in the U.S., believes that vaccination expose children to health risks and can cause harm.
It can be easy to write off these opinions, but psychology researchers have long known of many cognitive biases that can lead people to make poor judgments. Several of these researchers are interested in how people end up receiving and believing fallacious ideas as they relate to vaccines.
The human mind isn’t like a computer. Our brains aren’t composed of truth values coded as ones and zeros. Emotion, confidence and memory can all impact how we form beliefs. The problem is we often don’t recognize when we aren’t thinking logically.
Gordon Pennycook, a researcher at Canada’s University of Regina, said he’s interested in “the tendency for people to be lazy in the way that they think.” Essentially, he said, high-level reasoning takes a lot of mental effort, and we humans are cognitive misers. If we don’t have to think that hard, we won’t.
“Part of the problem, though,” Pennycook told VOA, “is that when it comes to more complicated domains, like in the realm of science, our intuitions are often wrong. So we need to spend more time thinking about it.”
In 2015, Pennycook published a paper titled On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bulls**t that focused on whether people find meaning in statements randomly made up of common buzzwords. One example: “Hidden meaning transforms unparalleled abstract beauty.”
He found that people who ascribed meaning to these nonsensical statements were more likely to believe in complementary and alternative medicine, which Pennycook asserts are the same people who are less likely to get vaccines.
“I don’t want to call it open-minded, but it’s a so-open-minded-that-your-brain-kind-of-falls-out type of situation,” he said.
The unwillingness or inability to think critically is somewhat tied to another well-known psychological phenomenon, the Dunning-Kruger effect. First formally identified in 1999 by its namesakes, the cognitive bias refers to a broken link between actual knowledge and perceived competence.
As Pennycook puts it, “The incompetent are too incompetent to recognize their incompetence.”
For example, people with little knowledge of vaccines may feel extra certain about the little information they have, whether it’s correct or not. Pennycook noted this can create the frustrating situation where “the people we want to help the most are the least aware of how much help they need.”
And when people feel confident, they aren’t likely to try to challenge those beliefs or ideas. This phenomenon is referred to as confirmation bias.
Panayiota Kendeou, an educational psychologist at the University of Minnesota, said the pre-existing belief that vaccines are dangerous “influences how [anti-vaccine parents] evaluate any information that they come across, and they view the information in alignment with their pre-existing beliefs.”
Confirmation bias creates a filter on new information. Information that a person agrees with is strengthened, while evidence to the contrary is ignored. In Kendeou’s opinion, “that’s the major or main bias when it comes to vaccinations.”
Misconceptions and misinformation
Kendeou studies reading comprehension and learning, but is particularly interested in what those messages contain. She is an expert in misinformation and has researched how inaccurate or totally misleading information is assessed by a person reading it.
She decided to test whether she could change the way people engage with written misinformation. Kendeou had participants read messages about vaccination, but some of the participants were told to pay special attention to who made claims and whether those claims made sense.
Kendeou found corrective measures like this did help those participants recognize misleading information. And, she told VOA, “what we find a month later is that we get some maintenance of the effect.”
It wasn’t a large difference, but participants were still better at correctly rejecting bad information about vaccines than they were before the test.
When reflecting on how to reach anti-vaccine people, Kendeou said, “Having good logical arguments, it’s a great first step. But also alerting [people] that they need to pay attention who provides those logical arguments is even more important.”
Fear as double-edged sword
Unfortunately, accepting new correct information can be difficult if a person is feeling fearful.
“What we know from our work is that negative emotions like fear and anxiety narrow your attention,” Kendeou said. “And when you end up in that state of mind, you do end up focusing on certain information and not other [information] because of that narrowness in attention.”
Fear of an immediate threat, even one that’s not real — like getting the flu from the influenza vaccine — restricts a person’s ability to see the whole situation. That metaphorical tunnel vision can limit people’s ability to think critically.
But Derek Powell, a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University, suggests that fear could also change the minds of people who don’t support vaccines. “At root, that [fear] is kind of the thing that’s driving this, for good or ill,” he said.
Rather than focusing on the oft-disproven idea that the MMR vaccine causes autism, Powell and his colleagues wanted to test if a message about the severity and risk of contracting measles, mumps or rubella convinced parents that vaccines are necessary. In a 2015 experiment, they did just that.
Powell assigned participants to one of three groups. The “fear” group was told about the chances of catching an immunizable disease and the resulting severe symptoms. In a second group, participants heard about studies proving vaccines don’t cause autism. A third group was given no additional information.
Powell said the idea was “even if you thought there was a little bit of risk to a vaccine, if we persuaded you there was a lot of risk to not vaccinating, that might kind of overall tip the scale in favor of vaccination.”
As expected, participants who learned about the risks of contracting preventable diseases were more supportive of vaccines. Interestingly, Powell noted that “emphasizing the safety of vaccines in scientific research showing there was no autism link between MMR vaccine and autism wasn’t really effective.”
It seems that just refuting an existing belief about vaccines isn’t enough. Powell said that some beliefs can be “sticky,” in that they are difficult to dismiss.
Kendeou, the University of Minnesota educational psychologist, agrees, saying while there are ways to combat bad information on vaccines, “there is no magic ‘erase and replace’ strategy.” Misconceptions, she said, never fully go away, but we can lessen their impact by reminding people to think critically and seek good evidence to refute bad arguments.
Researchers and communicators still find it difficult to keep that advice in mind.
“There’s a tendency to want to shake somebody until they start acting sensible, and I totally understand it,” Powell said. “I’ve felt it myself, but I don’t think it’s actually going to work in terms of changing their minds.”
For at least one previously anti-vaccine mom, Powell is correct.
Carli Leon, a mother of two children and previously self-described “loud voice” against vaccinations, said insulting comments online didn’t change her mind.
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“When people would ridicule me and call me a bad mother, it only made me dig my heels in more. What helped me was people asking me questions [that] got me to think. That got me to recognize the hypocrisy of the anti-vaxx community and my own hypocrisy with my own beliefs that I had,” Leon said.
“You never know who is reading these posts online,” she added. “It might just change somebody’s mind.” (VOA)
Along with the undeniable natural beauty, the Kashmir valley has developed a reputation for adventurous activities like trekking, hiking, and river rafting. Kashmir has maintained its charm, allowing us to time-travel into beautiful destinations which make one forget about the stress and worries of life. The hikes in Kashmir offer adventurers to go on a self-discovery trip through nature's lap over the mountains while taking in the breathtaking scenery that surrounds them on their journey. In addition to the hikes, there are many thrilling adventure activities, like rock climbing, rope climbing, etc. Trekking across the region of mountains and lakes will allow you to experience living in the "Paradise on Earth," and you wouldn't want to return to your regular life after that.
The following are some of the finest hiking destinations in Kashmir:
#1: Kashmir Great Lakes Trek: You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. In addition to three high-altitude passes and five river valley crossings, this is the only trip in the Himalayas that includes seven alpine lakes, each of which is a stunning shade of green, blue, or turquoise. The extravagance is limitless and breathtakingly stunning every day: infinite blue sky, a larger-than-life backdrop of the Rocky Mountains, colourful meadows overflowing with wildflowers, river crossings are just a few examples of what you will encounter during the trek.
You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. | Photo by prayer flags on Unsplash
#2: Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora Trek: The Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora trek is a one-of-a-kind experience that provides a glimpse into Kashmir's undiscovered regions. Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey that is the perfect experience for anyone looking to get away from the frantic tourist rush. This trek is a fascinating journey that allows nature enthusiasts to bask in the splendour of nature's grandeur. The trek goes over many high mountain passes, some as high as 4000 metres in elevation. The hiking route, in addition to providing breathtaking views of the magnificent Vishansar Lake, provides visitors with the chance to see more than 50 alpine lakes.
Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey. | Photo by YASER NABI MIR on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Top 10 Beautiful Sights To VIsit In Kashmir
#3: Tral-Narastan-Marsar Trek: The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. The hiking trail passes past a waving saffron field, beautiful meadows, and several streams. The path also crosses the Dachigam National Park, where there is an opportunity to see various animal species. Trekkers may take in spectacular views of the high mountains running parallel to them as they cut and pass through Narastan, a Hindu pilgrimage place.
The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. | Wikimedia Commons
#4: Chhatargul-Mahlish-Gangabal: The journey, which passes through beautiful locations such as Chattargul, Mahlish, Kolsar, and Trunkul, provides a peek into an utterly uninhabited wilderness of Kashmir. There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one trek into the alpine wilderness. Trekkers can also enjoy fishing in the crystal clear lakes, camping, or just seeing towering snow-capped mountains while on their journey.
There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one treks into the alpine wilderness. | Wikimedia Commons
#5: Kolahoi Base Camp Trek: The Kolahoi Base Camp trek in Kashmir has been famous since the early 1900s and has been a goal for many seasoned hikers from across the world. While Srinagar serves as the beginning point for the trip, it is in Aru Valley that the actual hiking begins. The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. The breathtaking sight of the peaks rising into the sky on the horizon of the Pirpanjal and Karakoram ranges is certainly worth capturing. It is considered to be one of the most popular treks in the Kashmir valley.
The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. | Wikimedia Commons
Kashmir's natural splendour, with its beautiful valleys and towering mountains, is really unlike anywhere. Trekking through various valleys and peaks while taking in the scenic beauty is something that always calms the heart and provides us with memories that we will remember for a lifetime.
Keywords: Kashmir, Lakes, Alpine, Hiking, Trekking, Treks, Sonamarg, Gangabal, Kolahoi, Chhatargul, Mahlish, Tral, Narastan, Marsar
The Pitru Paksha starts after the Full Moon day, and this day marks the beginning of the waning phase of the Lunar cycle. This event is roughly of 15-day period, and is of great significance. From this day, rituals like Tarpan or Tarpanam and Shradh are carried out to pay respects to dead relatives and ancestors.
It is believed that from the very first day till the last day, the unhappy souls of the deceased return to the Earth to see their family members. So, in order to ensure that the dead attain Moksha, i.e. to get liberation, family members of these souls quench their thirst and satisfy their hunger by performing the Pind Daan, which includes offering food consisting of cooked rice and black sesame seeds. The literal meaning of Pind Daan is the act of satisfying those who no longer exist physically.
For fifteen days, prayers are offered in temples and rituals are performed to help the souls get free from the cycle of birth, life, and death, and attain salvation.
At the same time, the Pitru Paksha is also an important period for people with Pitru Dosha, which means the curse imposed by the ancestors. Hence, in order to ask forgiveness, people perform Shradh rituals and offer food to the crows, who are considered as living beings that represent the dead. It is believed, if the crow eats the offered food, the ancestors are happy and pleased. But, if the crow doesn't eat the offered food and flies away, the ancestors are not happy.
The event of Pitru Paksha is widely observed by Hindus from all over the world, and they perform prayers and rituals in order to gain their ancestors blessings.
At the heart of Bangalore city, a large 300-acre space of lush greenery and heritage stands as a symbol of the city's past, present, and future. Cubbon Park is every child's favourite park, every Bangalorean's haven of fresh air, and altogether, the city's pride.
It stands testament to the past, in terms of the diversity of flora it houses. Bangalore traffic in the recent past has grown into a menace, but the stretch between MG Road and Cubbon Park is always a pleasurable place to stop and wait for the signal to turn green. The gust of wind that blows here, and the smell of mud, coupled with floral scents instantly transports citizens to Old Bangalore, where the weather was fine, and the trees loomed over roads with thick canopies that did not even allow rainwater to penetrate. Cubbon Park is also a historical site, and one of the few remaining monuments of colonial heritage in Central Bangalore. It houses many statues and among them, the most famous is that of Queen Victoria, which faces the St. Mark's Square.
The stretch outside Cubbon Park is cool and well-shaded from the canopy of trees over it. Image source: wikimedia commons
At present, Cubbon Park is known for the cultural hub that it is. It houses Jawahar Bal Bhavan, which is a large theatre that hosts film festivals through the year. Festivals, poetry open mics, and other such shows are conducted on the lawns every Sunday. A small stream runs through the park, where boat rides are held occasionally when the water level is high enough. There is a children's park on one corner, and a government-maintained aquarium, two-storeys tall, with exotic fish.
The Park has been renamed many times in the past. It was originally named Meade's Park, after Sir John Meade, the acting commissioner of Mysore in 1870. It was later changed to Cubbon Park after Sir Mark Cubbon, who was the longest-serving commissioner of the Mysore state. In 1927, the park was renamed after the Mysore Maharaja Sri Krishna Wodeyar, to celebrate his silver jubilee, since the park was developed during the reign of his ancestors. Even though it is officially named Sri Chamrajendra Park, it is still known as Cubbon Park all over the city. In fact, Bangalore was alluded the sobriquet of 'Garden City' because of the rich botanical diversity of this park.
Art Installation at Cubbon Park Image source: wikimedia commons
In many parts of the country, governments have renamed structures, places, and cities to remove traces of colonialism. But, in a city like Bangalore, there is too much evidence of the British rule. Many of the most prominent attractions of the city are known by their British identities despite the change in name. Even the city's name continues to be Bangalore, despite having been changed to Bengaluru. Last year, the British era and its achievements were celebrated in Cubbon Park when Sir Mark Cubbon's statue was moved from the grounds of the Karnataka High Court and placed in the Park.
Keywords: Cubbon Park, Mark Cubbon, British Colonialism, Cultural hub, Garden City