Saturday December 15, 2018

Researchers Develop AI That Can Help Make Cancer Treatment Less Toxic

The new "self-learning" machine-learning technique could make the dosing regimen less toxic but still effective

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Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay
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MIT researchers, including one of Indian-origin, have developed novel machine-learning techniques to improve the quality of life for patients by reducing toxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy dosing for an aggressive form of brain cancer.

Glioblastoma is a malignant tumour that appears in the brain or spinal cord, and the prognosis for adults is no more than five years.

Patients are generally administered maximum safe drug doses to shrink the tumour as much as possible, but they still remain at risk of debilitating side effects.

The new “self-learning” machine-learning technique could make the dosing regimen less toxic but still effective.

It looks at the treatment regimen currently in use, and finds an optimal treatment plan, with the lowest possible potency and frequency of doses that should still reduce tumour sizes to a degree comparable to that of traditional regimen, the researchers said.

“We kept the goal where we have to help patients by reducing tumour sizes but, at the same time, we want to make sure the quality of life — the dosing toxicity — doesn’t lead to overwhelming sickness and harmful side effects,” said Pratik Shah, principal investigator from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, US.

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Representational image. Pixabay

The findings will be presented at the 2018 Machine Learning for Healthcare conference at Stanford University in California, US.

In simulated trials of 50 patients, the model comprising of artificially intelligent “agents”, designed treatment cycles that reduced the potency to a quarter or half of nearly all the doses while maintaining the same tumour-shrinking potential.

Many times, it skipped doses altogether, scheduling administrations only twice a year instead of monthly.

You May Also Like to Read About The Relation of Cancer Cells With Immune System- Decoded: How Cancer Cells Cripple Immune System

However, the researchers also had to make sure the model does not just dish out a maximum number and potency of doses. Whenever the model chooses to administer all full doses, it gets penalized, so instead it chooses fewer, smaller doses.

“If all we want to do is reduce the mean tumour diameter, and let it take whatever actions it wants, it will administer drugs irresponsibly,” Shah said.

“Instead, we need to reduce the harmful actions it takes to get to that outcome.” (IANS)

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Google Announces ‘Journalism AI’ Project

According to Google, in Asia-Pacific, journalists and publishers are increasingly grappling with questions over how quality journalism can thrive in the digital age

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A Google logo is seen at the company's headquarters in Mountain View, California, VOA

To help news industry use Artificial Intelligence (AI) in more innovative ways, Google has announced a partnership with Polis, the international journalism think-tank at London School of Economics and Political Science, to create “Journalism AI”.

Part of the Google News Initiative (GNI), the “Journalism AI” project will focus on research and training for newsrooms on the intersection of AI and journalism.

“As part of ‘Journalism AI’, next year, we’ll publish a global survey about how the media is currently using — and could further benefit from — this technology,” Google said in a statement on Friday as it organised GNI Innovation Forum here.

“We’ll also collaborate with newsrooms and academic institutions to create a best practices handbook and produce free online training on how to use AI in the newsroom for journalists worldwide,” informed Matt Cooke, Head of Partnerships and Training, Google News Lab.

After testing with partners over the last two years, Google also introduced a new tool called Google Earth Studio which is an animation tool for Google Earth’s satellite and 3D imagery.

The tool empowers graphics specialists with new ways to leverage Google Earth imagery for storytelling.

“We’re inviting newsrooms around the world to start using the product for the first time,” said Google.

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Google on a smartphone device. Pixabay

According to the company, it has provided free training to journalists on a range of tools reaching more than 140,000 people in-person.

“Our training on Google tools for journalists are now available in 16 languages — including Indonesian Bahasa, Thai and Turkish,” said Cooke.

Google News in November launched a new innovation challenge to help scribes and publishers in the Asia-Pacific region produce quality journalism in the digital age.

Also Read- Elon Musk May Buy GM Plant to Increase Tesla Production

The Asia-Pacific Google News Initiative (GNI) Innovation Challenge will fund selected projects up to $300,000 and finance up to 70 per cent of the total project cost, that inject new ideas into the news industry.

According to Google, in Asia-Pacific, journalists and publishers are increasingly grappling with questions over how quality journalism can thrive in the digital age.

“From Yangon to Manila, Sydney to New Delhi, they are experimenting with fresh approaches to reporting and new business models,” said the company. (IANS)