Wednesday October 24, 2018

Researchers Develop AI That Can Help Make Cancer Treatment Less Toxic

The new "self-learning" machine-learning technique could make the dosing regimen less toxic but still effective

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Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay
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MIT researchers, including one of Indian-origin, have developed novel machine-learning techniques to improve the quality of life for patients by reducing toxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy dosing for an aggressive form of brain cancer.

Glioblastoma is a malignant tumour that appears in the brain or spinal cord, and the prognosis for adults is no more than five years.

Patients are generally administered maximum safe drug doses to shrink the tumour as much as possible, but they still remain at risk of debilitating side effects.

The new “self-learning” machine-learning technique could make the dosing regimen less toxic but still effective.

It looks at the treatment regimen currently in use, and finds an optimal treatment plan, with the lowest possible potency and frequency of doses that should still reduce tumour sizes to a degree comparable to that of traditional regimen, the researchers said.

“We kept the goal where we have to help patients by reducing tumour sizes but, at the same time, we want to make sure the quality of life — the dosing toxicity — doesn’t lead to overwhelming sickness and harmful side effects,” said Pratik Shah, principal investigator from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, US.

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Representational image. Pixabay

The findings will be presented at the 2018 Machine Learning for Healthcare conference at Stanford University in California, US.

In simulated trials of 50 patients, the model comprising of artificially intelligent “agents”, designed treatment cycles that reduced the potency to a quarter or half of nearly all the doses while maintaining the same tumour-shrinking potential.

Many times, it skipped doses altogether, scheduling administrations only twice a year instead of monthly.

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However, the researchers also had to make sure the model does not just dish out a maximum number and potency of doses. Whenever the model chooses to administer all full doses, it gets penalized, so instead it chooses fewer, smaller doses.

“If all we want to do is reduce the mean tumour diameter, and let it take whatever actions it wants, it will administer drugs irresponsibly,” Shah said.

“Instead, we need to reduce the harmful actions it takes to get to that outcome.” (IANS)

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Samsung to Develop AI-Enabled Multi-Device System

Samsung is now planning to expand its AI research centres to other technology and talent-rich areas

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Samsung planning to develop AI-powered multi-device system. Flickr

With Artificial Intelligence (AI) pushing the frontiers of communication technology, Samsung Electronics is planning to develop a multi-device platform — a variety of AI-enabled devices that communicate seamlessly with each other — to make experiences more personal and relevant.

The South Korean tech giant presented its future vision for AI while announcing this week a new AI centre in Montreal, Canada.

“By leveraging the power of AI in Samsung’s products and services, we must focus on creating new values, never seen nor experienced before,” said Seunghwan Cho, Executive Vice President of Samsung Research.

By providing multiple touchpoints where a user can interact with AI, Samsung said its multi-modal interaction platform (voice, vision, screen, touch) will make experiences more relevant and personal in the future.

“One key element that will move AI to being more widely adopted is multi-device systems — i.e., a variety of AI-enabled devices that communicate seamlessly with each other,” said Larry Heck, Head of AI Centres for Samsung Research America.

“Samsung is uniquely positioned to be a leader in this regard. It’s not just how each device uses AI, it’s how they use it together,” Heck said.

Samsung
The South Korean tech giant presented its future vision for AI while announcing this week a new AI centre in Montreal, Canada.

The newly opened AI centre in Montreal is Samsung’s seventh AI research facility to open this year making it the fourth in North America alone.

The global AI centres, which are also located in South Korea, Russia and Britain, support the company’s efforts in AI that include the development of Samsung’s virtual assistant, Bixby.

Gregory Dudek of the McGill University School of Computer Science and an expert in a wide range of AI technologies — from Machine Learning to human-robot interactions — will lead the Montreal AI Centre.

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“We are excited to open a new Samsung AI Centre in Montreal, which will conduct research in machine learning and robotics enabled multi-modal interactions,” Dudek said.

Samsung is now planning to expand its AI research centres to other technology and talent-rich areas.

Earlier this year, the company announced its plans to expand the number of advanced AI researchers to a total of about 1,000 globally by 2020. (IANS)