Sunday January 19, 2020

Researchers Discover Genes That Help Bacteria Prevent Treatment, Says Study

Transposons aid in the spread of genes that can give rise to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and more likely to cause disease. The newly discovered genes are encoded within a transposon, said the study

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The researchers found that Vitamin D in cells and mouse models can be beneficial in treating these damaged beta cells.
Representational image, pixabay

Researchers have discovered two genes that make some strains of harmful bacteria resistant to treatment by copper, which is a powerful and frequently used antibacterial agent, says a new study.

The discovery showed that Staphyloccocus aureus bacteria, which is highly resistant to antibiotics, can acquire additional genes that promote infections and antibacterial resistance and may open new paths for the development of antibacterial drugs.

The study, conducted by the Rutgers University in the US, showed the two genes, named copB and copL, in some strains of S. aureus bacteria protect the germs from copper.

The genes may promote the survival of S. aureus in settings, such as in hospitals, that could lead to infections or they may lead to S. aureus strains with higher copper resistance.

Recently, hospitals began using it against bacteria found on medical instruments and other surfaces. It has also been used for thousands of years to sterilise wounds and drinking water.

Genes
Genes (Representational image).

But the two newly discovered genes encode proteins that help remove copper from S. aureus cells and prevent it from entering.

Also Read- Novel Approach to Treat Cancer Cells

The findings, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, revealed that some strains of S. aureus have newly acquired genes embedded in their genome in pieces of DNA called transposons.

Transposons aid in the spread of genes that can give rise to bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and more likely to cause disease. The newly discovered genes are encoded within a transposon, said the study. (IANS)

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Genetic Alteration Can Increase Risk of Developing Autism and Tourette’s Syndrome

Some researchers also found that the ability of the Thalamic brain regions to communicate with other brain areas was impaired by the genetic deletion

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Genetic
Genetic deletion disrupts a brain area known as the Thalamus, compromising its ability to communicate with other brain areas. Pixabay

Researchers have discovered how a Genetic Alteration that increases the risk of developing Autism and Tourette’s impairs brain communication.

People with a genetic deletion known as chromosome 2p16.3 deletion often experience developmental delay and have learning difficulties.

They are also around 15 times more likely to develop Autism and 20 times more likely to develop Tourette’s Syndrome, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood.

Using brain imaging studies, neuroscientists showed that deletion of the gene impacted by 2p16.3 deletion (Neurexin1) have impacts on the function of brain regions involved in both conditions.

This genetic deletion disrupts a brain area known as the Thalamus, compromising its ability to communicate with other brain areas, said the study published in the journal Cerebral Cortex.

“We currently have a very poor understanding of how the 2p16.3 deletion dramatically increases the risk of developing these disorders,” said lead researcher Neil Dawson of Lancaster University in Britain.

“However, we know that the 2p16.3 deletion involves deletion of the Neurexin1 gene, a gene that makes a protein responsible for allowing neurons to communicate effectively,” Dawson said.

Deletion of the Neurexin1 gene affects brain areas involved in Autism and Tourette’s including the Thalamus, a collection of brain regions that play a key role in helping other brain areas communicate with each other.

Autism
Researchers have discovered how a Genetic Alteration that increases the risk of developing Autism and Tourette’s impairs brain communication. Pixabay

Changes were also found in brain regions involved in processing sensory information and in learning and memory.

Importantly, the researchers also found that the ability of the Thalamic brain regions to communicate with other brain areas was impaired by the genetic deletion.

ALSO READ: Physical illness And injury Raises The Risk of Suicide in Men, Not Women: Study

They then tested the ability of a low dose of the drug Ketamine, which is used clinically at higher doses as an anesthetic, to normalise the alterations in brain function induced by genetic deletion.

“Intriguingly our data suggest that Ketamine can restore some aspects of the brain dysfunction that results from 2p16.3 deletion and suggests that ketamine, or other related drugs, may be useful in treating some of the symptoms seen in autism and Tourette’s,” Dawson said. (IANS)