Tuesday December 12, 2017

Researchers Identifies Causes of Osteoporosis in Older Adults

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Bone loss in adults. IANS

New York, Sep 25, 2017: Researchers have identified a mechanism that leads to bone loss in older adults, an advance that may help develop therapeutics to treat the age-associated bone loss condition.

Osteoporosis — the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures — is a major health problem in older people.

Often the condition is accompanied by an increase in fat cells in the bone marrow.

The study led by Yi-Ping Li, Professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, found a protein called Cbf-beta which plays a critical role in maintaining the bone-producing cells.

Furthermore, the examination of aged mice showed dramatically reduced levels of Cbf-beta in bone marrow cells as compared to younger mice.

The findings showed when this mechanism malfunctions, progenitor cells stop creating bone-producing cells and instead create fat cells.

Thus, maintaining this Cbf-beta may be essential to prevent human age-associated osteoporosis that is due to elevated creation of fat cells, Li said.

The results were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Knowledge of this mechanism can provide targets in the search for novel bone-loss therapeutics to treat human osteoporosis with minimal side effects, the researchers noted. (IANS)

 

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Do you regularly take opioids and anti-depressants? This study says it may increase bone diseases

The researchers evaluated 11,049 rheumatoid arthritis patients, aged 40 and above, with no signs of osteoporotic fractures prior to the tests. After a median follow-up time of 5.7 years, the study found 863 patients affected with osteoporotic fractures.

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Anti-depressants may increase the risk of developing bone fractures, says a new study

New York, November 6, 2017 : Consuming opioids and anti-depressants may increase the risk of developing bone fractures among people who are already suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, says a new study.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease that causes pain, stiffness, swelling, and limitation in the motion and function of multiple joints and organs of the body.

Chronic inflammation and pain in arthritis patients further leads to several diseases like cardiovascular, mental and gastrointestinal disorders. People take multiple medications in such cases that sometimes influences the risk of osteoporotic fractures or a disease caused due to reduced bone density, the researchers noted.

ALSO READ Importance of Magnesium in Human body, Strenghtens bones

“Even at younger ages, rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a two-fold increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures due to chronic inflammation and glucocorticoid use. More importantly, osteoporotic fractures significantly contribute to the disability, health-related costs and mortality with substantially higher complication in rheumatoid arthritis patients,” said Gulsen Ozen, researcher at the University of Nebraska Medical Centre.

The researchers evaluated 11,049 rheumatoid arthritis patients, aged 40 and above, with no signs of osteoporotic fractures prior to the tests. After a median follow-up time of 5.7 years, the study found 863 patients affected with osteoporotic fractures.

The patients who developed fractures were significantly older and had higher disease risk and bone fracture risk at the baseline than those patients who did not experience fractures.

The results presented at the ACR/ARHP annual meeting 2017 in San Diego mentioned that the osteoporotic fracture risk increased within 30 days when the patients were given opioids. The associated medications also led to falls in certain cases.

“Knowing the risks associated with the use of these medications can guide rheumatologists and other physicians in choosing the most appropriate management strategies in patients, particularly the ones who have a high fracture or fall risk,” Ozen added. (IANS)

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Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) May Combat Lung Function Decline in Women: Study

Menopause, where the level of female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone fall, accelerates the decline in lung function

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Women who undergo HRT have less chances of lung function decline. Pixabay

London, Sep 12, 2017: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), used to treat common symptoms of menopause, can help slow the decline in lung function in middle-aged women, according to new research.

Women who suffer from airway diseases, the decline in lung function may influence quality of life, as it could lead to an increase in shortness of breath, reduced work capacity and fatigue.

According to the study, menopause, where the level of female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone fall, accelerates the decline in lung function.

But women who took HRT — where these hormones are prescribed — for two or more years lost an average of 46 ml less of lung volume compared with women who never took HRT.

“Our findings show that female sex hormones are important for the preservation of lung function in middle-aged women,” Kai Triebner, post-doctoral student at the University of Bergen in Norway.

Also Read: Abdominal fat drives cancer in postmenopausal women: Study 

For the study, presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress in Milan, Italy, the team followed 3,713 women for approximately 20 years from the early 1990s to 2010.

While HRT can help with menopausal symptoms and protects against osteoporosis, it has also been linked with an increase in the risk of breast cancer and heart and blood vessel problems.

“Women with existing health problems, for instance asthma, need to be followed more thoroughly through the menopausal transition and be provided with advice on medications that take the changing hormone levels better into account — ideally with a personalised approach,” Triebner added. (IANS)

 

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Scientists discover new treatment for bone loss

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New York: Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), Florida, have developed a method to manipulate a protein that could result in the development of new bone-forming cells in patients suffering from bone loss.

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, focused on a protein called PPARy (known as the master regulator of fat) and its impact on the fate of stem cells derived from bone marrow (mesenchymal stem cells).

Since these mesenchymal stem cells can develop into several different cell types — including fat, connective tissues, bone and cartilage — they have a number of potentially important therapeutic applications.

The scientists knew that a partial loss of PPARy in a genetically modified mouse model led to increased bone formation.

To see if they could mimic that effect using a drug candidate, the researchers designed a new compound that could repress the biological activity of PPARy.

The results showed that when human mesenchymal stem cells were treated with the new compound, which they called SR2595, there was a statistically significant increase in osteoblast formation, a cell type known to form bone.

“These findings demonstrate for the first time a new therapeutic application for drugs targeting PPARy, which has been the focus of efforts to develop insulin sensitisers to treat type 2 diabetes,” said Patrick Griffin, director of the Translational Research Institute at Scripps Florida.

“We have already demonstrated SR2595 has suitable properties for testing in mice. The next step is to perform an in-depth analysis of the drug’s efficacy in animal models of bone loss, ageing, obesity and diabetes,” Griffin added.

In addition to identifying a potential new therapeutic for bone loss, the study may have even broader implications.

“Because PPARG is so closely related to several proteins with known roles in disease, we can potentially apply these structural insights to design new compounds for a variety of therapeutic applications,” said David P. Marciano, first author of the study. (IANS)