Friday February 21, 2020

Resistance to Common Antibiotic Rising Among Indian Patients: Health Experts

In India, a huge population prefers to consume over-the-counter (OTC) drugs without even consulting a doctor

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Antibiotic
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development today. Pixabay

Resistance to commonly-used antibiotic clarithromycin is rising among Indian patients and that too at quite a fast pace, health experts have warned.

Clarithromycin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication can also be used in combination with anti-ulcer medications to treat certain types of stomach ulcers.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development today.

Sunil Sofat, Additional Director, Department of Interventional Cardiology (Adult) at Jaypee Hospital in Noida, said that every antibiotic medicine has its own mechanism to treat diseases.

“Yes, this is true that the resistance to clarithromycin is rising among the Indian patients and that too at quite a fast pace. There are multiple factors for the same but one of the major reasons behind it is self-medication,” Sofat told IANS.

“In India, a huge population prefers to consume over-the-counter (OTC) drugs without even consulting a doctor. In the long run, this may make them resistant to most of the antibiotics including clarithromycin,” Sofat added.

Antibiotic
In India the consumption of Antibiotic Medicines without consulting a qualified physician is quite common which is leading to its resistance. Pixabay

In a recent study presented at United European Gastroenterology (UEG) Week Barcelona 2019, researchers have found that resistance to clarithromycin, one of the most established antimicrobials used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), had increased from 9.9 per cent in 1998 to 21.6 per cent last year, with increases in resistance also seen for levofloxacin and metronidazole.

The study, which analysed 1,232 patients from 18 countries across Europe, investigated resistance to antibiotics regularly taken for Helicobacter pylori infection, a harmful bacterium associated with gastric ulcers, lymphoma and gastric cancer.

According to Gaurav Jain, Senior Consultant, Internal Medicine at Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, antibiotic resistance is a major concern.

“In India the consumption of antibiotics without consulting a qualified physician is quite common which is leading to its resistance,” Jain told IANS.

“There is increase in resistance to antibiotics including clarithromycin which is undoubtedly a worrisome situation in the country,” Jain said.

However, Deepak Verma of Internal Medicine at Columbia Asia Hospital, Ghaziabad said: “Most of the cases that we see in India are connected to gram-negative bacteria such as e.coli that causes urinary tract infection (UTI).”

Antibiotic
Antibiotic Medicines can force the pathogen to develop resistance. Pixabay

He added that the main causes for antibiotic resistance in India are its rampant misuse where people indulge in self-doctoring as well as taking medicines prescribed by unregistered medical practitioners, including quacks who suggest antibiotics quite indiscriminately.

“They primarily use antibiotics symptomatically which is not a correct method for all ailments — without blood and urine culture. Antibiotics can force the pathogen to develop resistance,” Verma explained.

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“Since the clinical culture in India is different from that of the western countries, the lack of awareness of the right process to prescribe antibiotics increases the chances of people using antibiotics without questioning,” he stressed. (IANS)

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Know About the Various Sleep Disorders

Having trouble sleeping? It could be a sleep disorder

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Sleep Disorders
It is essential in promoting heart health, muscle repair, cognitive consolidation and limits the onset of sleep disorders. Lifetime Stock

A good nights sleep is extremely significant to our health. If you do not get enough sleep, or sleep at an incorrect time, or sleep in breaks or have been diagnosed with a sleep disorder, this may cause sleep deficiency.

Quality sleep helps regulate a healthy immune system as well as hormones Ghrelin and Leptin that help balance appetite. On average, an adult should sleep for at least seven-nine hours.

The body’s blood pressure is permitted to regulate itself through adequate sleep. It is essential in promoting heart health, muscle repair, cognitive consolidation and limits the onset of sleep disorders. Due to our current lifestyles, we might face trouble sleeping at night; we tend to ignore the signs until the problem escalates.

Sleep Disorders
Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders. Lifetime Stock

“Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the aptitude to sleep well on a regular basis. It is a common problem nowadays that coincides with a simple headache and day-to-day stress. When a patient walks in for a headache which is a common neurological disorder, 60-70 per cent of the time it is related to disrupted sleep,” says Dr Rima Chaudhari, Consultant Neurologist, Fortis Hospital, Mulund.

Insomnia is known to be the most common sleep disorder, But, there are more sleep disorders one should know of that affect health and lifestyle.

Sleep Apnoea

This is a serious sleep disorder where breathing frequently stops and starts again, this causes the oxygen level in the blood to drop. It may therefore hamper oxygen supply to the brain and the rest of the body; our body senses this occurrence and disrupts one’s sleep, to ensure that the individual breathes again. Common symptoms of sleep apnoea are snoring, wheezing for air, and waking up with a dry mouth.

Restless legs syndrome

It is a neurological disorder where a person gets an urge to move his/her legs constantly. People with this condition experience discomfort or twitchiness (ache or burning) in their legs after going to sleep. As it typically disturbs sleep, it is considered as a sleep disorder.

Sleep paralysis

Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the aptitude to sleep well on a regular basis. Lifetime Stock

Sleep paralysis is a disorder where a person is unable to move or speak when waking up and falling asleep. A person may also tend to hallucinate in this case. Patients experience a certain pressure and instant fear, as they have a feeling of being conscious but are unable to move.

Circadian rhythm disorder

This is a type of disorder which usually happens when a person’s internal biological clock is not in sync with external time cues. This sleeping pattern is usually hindered by two or more hours, especially when a person goes to sleep later at night or sleeps later in the morning. This is reported commonly amongst those who work night shifts, experience repetitive jet lag, or having an irregular sleep cycle.

Insomnia

Insomnia is a very common type of sleep disorder in which people have trouble falling and or staying asleep. They tend to sleep during the daytime, and are constantly low on energy or irritable.

Tips to get better sleep at night:

– Maintain good sleep hygiene and set a bedtime schedule

– Reduce coffee intake in the evenings and at night

Also Read- Follow These Tips For a Better Mental Health

– Decrease screen time, especially for a few hours before bedtime

– Exercise regularly

– Avoid afternoon or early evening naps if you have trouble sleeping at night

– Take a relaxing hot bath or shower before getting into bed (IANS)