Saturday December 7, 2019

Rotavirus Relates to Development of Type 1 Diabetes

Researchers suggests that Rotavirus infection might play a role in the generation of Type 1 Diabetes

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Diabetes
Rotavirus vaccination can contribute to the primary prevention of Type 1 Diabetes. Pixabay

Researchers from the University of Melbourne have found that rotavirus infection might play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes.

Rotavirus remains the major cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide, although the advent of vaccination has substantially decreased associated mortality.

Following the recent introduction of rotavirus vaccination, there has been a 15 per cent decrease in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Australian children under four years of age.

“Vaccination against rotavirus may have the additional benefit in some children of being a primary prevention for type 1 diabetes,” said the study’s lead author Leonard C. Harrison.

Diabetes
The recent introduction of rotavirus vaccination, there has been a 15 per cent decrease in the incidence of type 1 Diabetes in Australian children. Pixabay

The study published in the journal PLOS suggested that rotavirus vaccination could contribute to the primary prevention of this autoimmune disease.

This finding complements human and animal studies implicating rotavirus in the development of type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible children.

In the article, the research team begin by reviewing molecular evidence supporting their hypothesis and point out the association between rotavirus infection and serum islet autoantibodies.

Diabetes
Rotavirus infection might play a role in the development of type 1 Diabetes. Pixabay

The results showed that rotavirus infection-induced pancreatic pathology, as well as environmental factors that promote the rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

After reviewing population-level data, the study suggested that rotavirus vaccination might be associated with a decrease in the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

According to the researchers, it will be important to identify which children are most likely to be protected by rotavirus vaccination.

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Moreover, future studies should aim to reveal disease mechanisms and directly demonstrate whether rotavirus infects human pancreas prior to the onset of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. (IANS)

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Reduction in Air Pollution May Increase Life-Expectancy: Study

Findings of a Research indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution

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Pollution
Fortunately, reducing air Pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Pixabay

Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests.

The study, published in the journal Annals of the American Thoracic Society, reviewed interventions that have reduced air pollution at its source. It looked for outcomes and time to achieve those outcomes in several settings, finding that the improvements in health were striking.

Starting at week one of a ban on smoking in Ireland, for example, there was a 13 per cent drop in all-cause mortality, a 26 per cent reduction in ischemic heart disease, a 32 per cent reduction in stroke, and a 38 per cent reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Interestingly, the greatest benefits in that case occurred among non-smokers.

“We knew there were benefits from pollution control, but the magnitude and relatively short time duration to accomplish them were impressive,” said lead author Dean Schraufnagel from the American Thoracic Society in the US.

“Our findings indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately,” Schraufnagel added.

Pollution
Reductions in Air Pollution yielded fast and dramatic impacts on health-outcomes, as well as decreases in all-cause morbidity, a new study suggests. Pixabay

According to the researchers, In the US a 13-month closure of a steel mill in Utah resulted in reducing hospitalisations for pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchitis and asthma by half.

School absenteeism decreased by 40 per cent, and daily mortality fell by 16 per cent for every 100 µg/m3 PM10 (a pollutant) decrease.

Women who were pregnant during the mill closing were less likely to have premature births.

A 17-day ‘transportation strategy,’ in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Olympic Games involved closing parts of the city to help athletes make it to their events on time, but also greatly decreased air pollution.

In the following four weeks, children’s visits for asthma to clinics dropped by more than 40 per cent and trips to emergency departments by 11 per cent. Hospitalizations for asthma decreased by 19 per cent.

WHO
Findings of the Study indicate almost immediate and substantial effects on health outcomes followed reduced exposure to air pollution. It’s critical that governments adopt and enforce WHO guidelines for air pollution immediately. Wikimedia Commons

Similarly, when China imposed factory and travel restrictions for the Beijing Olympics, lung function improved within two months, with fewer asthma-related physician visits and less cardiovascular mortality.

“Fortunately, reducing air pollution can result in prompt and substantial health gains. Sweeping policies affecting a whole country can reduce all-cause mortality within weeks,” Schraufnagel said.

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Local programmes, such as reducing traffic, have also promptly improved many health measures, said the study. (IANS)