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By Pashchiema Bhatia
“Roti” is a word derived from a Sanskrit word “Rotika” means bread. Bread (or, flat bread) is produced throughout most of the world but Roti is something unique to India. It is a significant part of Indian cuisine. In India, at least one meal of a day includes roti or else meal is believed to be incomplete. Although, many people think that roti isn’t much popular in south India and it seems reasonably acceptable because wheat crop is most popular in north India but south Indians do consume roti or chapatti often although rice is the staple food there.
According to a survey done in Sikkim in selected 370 households, roti was found to be one of the common food items consumed daily.
Origin of Roti:
There are different stories on the origin of roti. Some say that it came from Persia and was prepared from maida and others say that it originated in the state of past Awadh. No matter where it originated from but many old writings suggest that it existed in Harappan culture, where people knew how to grow crops and agriculture was a major occupation. There are stories which show that roti with maida came from Persia and food historians say that Arabs exported roti to South Asia on their trade routes. In other story Ayurveda dates it back to the Vedic period. There are numerous other theories which are debatable but does it really matter where it originated from? We are glad that it exists and became a known face of every Indian table.
Roti has different varieties and different methods of preparation. Chapati, Phulka, kulcha, dosa, naan, paratha and many more comes under varieties of roti. Parantha is prepared by different methods and is popularly served with butter or curd or achaar (pickle).
Spread of Indian culture
Other than India and the neighboring countries, roti is now consumed in countries where Indians live so basically in every country and specially where there is major Indian diaspora – US, UK, West Indies, Fiji, South Africa, Canada etc. where roti may be identified with a local bread called Pita bread which is a Greek word. However, roti is roti and pita bread is pita bread, the two are at the best similar yet, different in preparation and the way they are served.
As mentioned earlier, bread (flat bread) is a universal entity and is recognized by different names and with slight change in taste and method of preparation many similar flat breads are eaten in Mexico, Jordan, Israel, Turkey, Armenia, Saharan Africa, West Indies and many more. Fatir (flat bread) is a traditional food of Saudi Arabia.
However, roti remains unique to people of Indian sub continent? And its people have taken it along with wherever the have settled. Thus, ‘Roti wrap’ (roti and curry together) is a popular fast- food or street- food item in The Caribbean and because of its convenience as a meal it rapidly gained popularity and became a staple street- food of Caribbean, or Indo-Caribbeans. As Indo-Caribbeans migrated to North America, they carried the wrapped roti recipe to Toronto, New York and Montreal and this recipe became common in restaurants and commercial companies. In Thailand, roti is known as maida paratha; in Indonesia as roti Maryam; roti cane and roti konde and in Singapore as roti parata. Persian food also includes naan bread.
Being the most popular Indian palatable food item, it is recognized as an integral part of Indian culture. Roti lovers are intrigued by perfect roti and making a perfect roti is not less than an art. Roti-making is an art and our Indian mothers are artists and no one can surpass their perfection. With bangles jingling and body sweating, they make roti of genuine taste. People who migrate to other countries irrefutably miss the Indian roti with ghee spread over it.
Pashchiema is an intern at Newsgram and a student of journalism and mass communication in New Delhi. Twitter: @pashchiema5
Apple has acknowledged an issue where the "unlock with Apple Watch" feature might not work with its new iPhone 13 devices and promised to fix this issue with an upcoming software update. "You might see 'Unable to Communicate with Apple Watch' if you try to unlock your iPhone while wearing a face mask, or you might not be able to set up Unlock with Apple Watch," the iPhone maker said in the support document.
This issue will be fixed in an upcoming software update. Until the update is available, you can turn off Unlock with Apple Watch and use your passcode to unlock your iPhone 13. To turn off Unlock with Apple Watch, go to Settings > Face ID & Passcode.
Earlier, multiple users found that they cannot unlock their iPhone 13 with the Apple Watch and instead received an error. User Monzilla88 on Reddit first reported the issue to the subreddit r/AppleWatch. They stated that both their iPhone 13 Pro and Apple Watch SE are up to date with the newest iOS and watchOS updates.
"Whenever I try to enable unlock with Apple Watch on my phone I get an error saying "Unable to communicate with Apple Watch," they posted. Monzilla88 claimed that they had tried unpairing and repairing, hard resetting both devices, turning on and off passcodes, but not no avail, the report said. More than 20 other users self-reported the same problem, with others noting that the feature works fine on iOS 15 on older models of iPhone, including the iPhone 11 Pro Max and the iPhone X. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: iPhone 13, apple, watch, issue, update, face lock
The nursery rhyme Goosey Goosey Gander is filled with multiple meanings. It is another one of those rhymes believed to have emerged from the time of great persecution in England during the Reformation. It also holds a contemporary, colloquial meaning.
The original verse goes something like this:
Goosey goosey gander,
Whither shall I wander?
Upstairs and downstairs
And in my lady's chamber.
There I met an old man
Who wouldn't say his prayers,
So I took him by his left leg
And threw him down the stair (allnurseryrhymes.com)
There are other versions that deal with more specific ideas from which separate meanings have been interpreted.
Catholic priests being killed for continuing to keep the faith Image source: wikimedia commons
The primary interpretation is believed to be regarding the Catholic priests getting persecuted by King Henry VIII and his Protestant successors. Catholicism in England was frowned upon when King Henry established the Church of England. Anyone practicing Catholicism was put to death for treason. Many of the courtiers were hanged on this charge, and are noted in history as being martyrs for their faith.
Those who managed to practice their religion without being discovered did so in what was called a 'priest hole'. These were small rooms in the walls of a house that was covered by tapestry or a bookshelf. The required prayer instruments would be placed here, and the person would retire to this chamber at night, or at a time when they were not required elsewhere. The goose that wanders her mistress's house in the nursery rhyme discovers such a person, presumably a priest, and exposes him, or 'throws him down the stair'.
An alternative meaning to this rhyme originates from the lower class of England's population, a colloquial term used widely among the non-rich. The word 'goose' was used commonly to address a prostitute, and here, could possibly refer to a woman who has acquired an STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection). "Whither shall I wander?/ Upstairs and downstairs/ And in my lady's chamber," could be a reference to the spread of an infection that a man acquires from such a woman, which causes him to be ostracised from his community. It was quite common in England for an upper-classman to bed a lower-class woman in the society of those days.
It is rather interesting that such a practice would turn into folklore, and in turn, become a rhyme sung by little children all over the world. It has certain amusing images no doubt, but not without raising questions. England of the times of Reformation was certainly a dark place, with a terribly dark heritage.
Keywords: Heritage, Rhymes, Folklore, England, Reformation
Many individuals struggle with psychological distress at home because most of us spend the whole day doing nothing. Being trapped inside our homes may seem inconvenient, but if you have the time and patience, the time spent indoors offers the ideal chance to learn new abilities. Whether you want to transform your body by following a daily routine with the help of millions of tutorials available across platforms, or you want to learn coding, cooking, a new language, here are some skills you can learn from the comfort of your home.
- A new language: Learning a new language online from the comfort of one's own home is simple and relatively inexpensive, thanks to apps such as Duolingo and Busuu. Gaining knowledge of a new language improves your communication skills. It allows you to communicate with a more significant number of individuals and open new doors, and expand your perspectives. Although most of us cannot travel due to COVID-19 restrictions, do not allow that to stop you from upskilling yourself.
Gaining knowledge of a new language improves your communication skills. | Photo by Jason Leung on Unsplash
- Writing: When it comes to skills, writing is one of the essential ones you may possess. It is the primary mode of communication for most people, particularly in this day and age with the internet, texting, and social media. Writing also has the added benefit of improving your public speaking abilities. Books, online courses, videos, and, of course, actual writing practice are all excellent resources for learning how to enhance your writing skills.
When it comes to skills, writing is one of the essential ones you may possess. | Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash
- Programming: Programming is one of the highest-paying professions available that does not require the completion of a Bachelor's degree. So even if you didn't pursue a degree in computer science in college, you may still benefit from this skill. Understanding the fundamentals of programming allows you to assist in the launch of an application, the optimization of a website for search engines, and the creation or editing of content. Many online platforms are available to assist you in learning to code. Recently, I also enrolled for C/C++ programming on Internshala.
Programming is one of the highest-paying professions available that does not require the completion of a Bachelor's degree. | Photo by Danial Igdery on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Which Is More Important- Degree or Skill?
- Typing Skill: Learning to type quickly and correctly will benefit you in a variety of ways throughout your life, and it should be regarded as a fundamental skill for anybody who intends to work with computers in the future. There are many websites that provide classes to help you learn the fundamentals, and then, after you have mastered the fundamentals, more advanced courses to help you improve your abilities further.
Learning to type quickly and correctly will benefit you in a variety of ways throughout your life. | Photo by Burst on Unsplash
- Video Editing: Video is unquestionably the most powerful marketing and promotional medium available for music, goods, services, news, and educational purposes. There is a strong possibility that video editing may become the next big thing. At the moment, video production does not need large financial investments; just having access to a computer is all that is required if you possess the right video editing skills. Besides YouTube, which has a large number of detailed videos on video editing, you may discover courses on Udemy and Lynda that can assist you in learning the necessary skills
There is a strong possibility that video editing may become the next big thing. | Photo by Ryan Snaadt on Unsplash
Another thing you may do when you're stuck at home is work on your personal development. We should all strive to improve ourselves as individuals. Here are some ways through which can understand the Significance Of Self-Love And How To Nurture It.
Keywords: Skills, home, COVID, pandemic, coding, language, typing, self-love, writing