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By Varuni Trivedi
Sati Pratha was without a doubt a horrific ritual that needed to be done away with. History or rather the widely accepted history which gets its narrative from a rather British perspective, tells us that the ritual was first recorded between 320 to 550 CE, during the rule of the Gupta Empire. According to many British historians, incidents of Sati were first recorded in Nepal in 464 CE, and later on in Madhya Pradesh in 510 CE further spreading to Rajasthan. The practice of Sati however was confined to royal families of the Kshatriya caste only it was only later that it spread to the lower castes, becoming widely practiced among almost all social classes. A rather delusional British history talks about Sati and its peak between the 15th and 18th centuries.
It is important to shed light on the fact that Sati is not mentioned in ancient Hindu scriptures like the Valmiki Ramayana and Vedas. Grhyusutras, composed during 600-300 BCE, describes a number of rituals with no mention of Sati in them. Gautama Buddha, who highly condemned even animal sacrifice, does not talk about Sati which is quite peculiar and makes one believe that Sati was non-existent during his times. Even Yajnavalkya doesn’t mention Sati.
However late 4th century BCE evidence from Greek historians says that Sati did not grow popular before 400 AD. The origins of Sati are quite debated and unclear. Lord Mahavira, Buddha, Adi Sankara, and other reformers have in their scriptures nowhere mentioned Sati which makes one believe that in ancient Hinduism Sati Pratha was not followed evidently.
As a matter of fact, even earlier bards of Rajputana mention hardly anything about Sati in their songs. The earliest record of Sati that can be traced is of the Mother of the Chahamana king Chandamahasena becoming in 842 AD. The next available case is of Sampalladevi of Ghatiyala in 890 AD. It was only after 1300 AD that Sati became an observed custom. However it was not rampant even then, Bhandarkara lists 20 cases of Sati in Rajputana between 1200 AD and 1600 AD, most of them being from royal families. Even though the 3rd Sikh Guru Amardas condemned Sati custom and prohibited it among Sikhs, it became a custom amongst the Sikh aristocracy as well later on.
It would be difficult to answer the exact period of Sati but it’s mostly considered between 1300-1800. Sati Pratha was high in the warrior families of Rajputana, where the percentage may have been as high as 10%. However for the general population, perhaps one widow in 1000 became a Sati when the custom was in its peak.
Most records of Sati come from foreign travelers; one such record is that of Edward Thomson. In his book ‘Suttee’, he states the official number and mentions statistics of Sati for the early 19th century, in Poona, there were 12 cases per year, in Tanjore 18 and in Central India 3-4 per year. An interesting fact that needs to be noted here is that many have claimed that Brahmanical Peshwas banned Sati throughout their domains in 1800, even Hindu Maratha kingdom Savantvadi banned Sati in 1821. The fact that Brahmins have been accused and Hinduism has been projected under bad light as a religion for having a custom like Sati stands less ground when certain facts are taken into consideration. For example, women who committed Sati were said to have died chaste, which, people believed, meant she would have good karma and a much better life in her next birth. However, this justification didn’t work for Brahmin women as they already belonged to the highest caste, so karmically they couldn’t benefit from Sati and thus did not have to practice it. Another noteworthy case is that of Raja Ranjit Dev, the Dogra king of Jammu, (1728–1780), who banned Sati in Jammu in the first half of the 18th century.
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Thus, Available statistics clearly show that outside ruling and priestly families, the custom did not make a wide appeal to the Hindu community. Then why was Sati pratha a rampant tradition and what gave more wind to this fire? When invaders started coming into India and raping women and taking them as sex slaves. That’s when the men who died their wives used to burn themselves on pyre from the fear of getting raped or being taken as a slave.
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Ram Mohan Roy undoubtedly led the crusade against Sati which was then banned in 1829. However if one accuses Brahnamical elites and Hinduism of propagating Sati pratha it would be entirely wrong. Likewise, it would also be wrong to give credit to Brits for banning Sati because what they primarily did was establish an anti-Hindu sentiment and play their divide and rule policy. They let the ritual flourish and helped ban it only to further the divide that they had been planning and plotting.
Jack Daniel's is the world's most popular whiskey brand, but until recently, few people knew the liquor was created by Nathan "Nearest" Green, an enslaved Black man who mentored Daniel.
"We've always known," says Debbie Staples, a great-great-granddaughter of Green's who heard the story from her grandmother. … "He made the whiskey, and he taught Jack Daniel. And people didn't believe it … it's hurtful. I don't know if it was because he was a Black man."
But people believe it now — in large part because Brown-Forman Corporation, owner of Jack Daniel's Tennessee Whiskey, has acknowledged the foundational role Green played in the brand's development.
"The truth of the matter is, Nearest Green was the first head distiller of Jack Daniels whiskey," says Matt Blevins, global brand director for Jack Daniels Tennessee Whiskey. "We're very proud of this story and are very committed to amplifying it and acknowledging that. In the past, we did not amplify it the way that we could have in earlier eras, but we're about the future and moving forward."
America's first-known Black master distiller
The story begins in Lynchburg, Tennessee, current home of the Jack Daniel Distillery. In the mid-1800s, Green's slaveholders hired him out to a local preacher named Dan Call. Green, who had a reputation as a skilled distiller, made whiskey for Call, using a sugar maple charcoal filtering process that is believed to have originated in West Africa. Daniel, a boy who worked for Call, became Green's apprentice and learned the special technique that gave the Tennessee whiskey its smooth taste.
After emancipation in 1863, when all enslaved people were freed, Daniel purchased Call's distillery and hired Green as Jack Daniel Distillery's first master distiller.
"The best knowledge that we have is that they had a mentor-and-mentee sort of a relationship, and I would say, a friendship," says Blevins. "The stories that have been passed down [talk] about the care that Jack Daniel took to always acknowledge … the Green family."
Historic photo of Jack Daniel (in white hat) seated next to George Green, the son of Nathan "Nearest" Green Image source: VOA
There are no known pictures of Green, but there is one of Daniel with Green's son, George, sitting next to Daniel, rather than being relegated to the back.
"That photograph shows the respect that they had for one another and for their families," says Stefanie Benjamin, an assistant professor of tourism management at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. "To be not only allowed in that photograph, but also positioned in the foreground and sitting right next to Jack Daniels himself."
Search for the truth
Green's role in the history of the brand was uncovered by a writer and entrepreneur named Fawn Weaver, who became fascinated by Green's unheralded contribution to the world's most popular whiskey. After extensive research, including interviews with Green's descendants, Weaver shared her documentation with the company.
"I was very pleasantly surprised when they embraced my research and updated their records to reflect that," Weaver told VOA via email. "I think it said a lot about the character of their company that they moved that quickly to course correct."
Jack Daniel's has incorporated Green's contributions into the official history of the brand, but Weaver has gone a step further. She invested $1 million of her own money to establish Uncle Nearest Premium Whiskey, which is now the fastest-growing independent American whiskey brand in U.S. history.
Fawn Weaver (center in red) with her leadership team at Uncle Nearest Premium Whiskey, including master distiller Victoria Eady Butler (far left), the great‐great‐granddaughter of Nearest Green. (Photo courtesy Uncle Nearest Premium Whiskey) Image credit: VOA
The company's master distiller is Victoria Eady Butler, Green's great‐great‐granddaughter.
"Uncle Nearest is the most-awarded American whiskey or bourbon of 2019, 2020 and 2021, and the fact that it is the bloodline of Nearest Green blending and approving what goes into our bottles is something I marvel at regularly," Weaver says. "Victoria is an absolute natural when it comes to blending, and to watch her work is to see something pretty darn close to perfection."
Seven generations of Green's family have worked at the Jack Daniel Distillery, a tradition that continues today with Staples and two of her siblings. But the Green family did not benefit when the Daniel family sold the Jack Daniel distillery to Brown-Forman for $20 million in 1956.
"Although they [the Green family] were very well off in terms of finances [in the 1800s] in that time, they were not the owners or co-owners of the Jack Daniel distillery," Benjamin says. "And so, those millions of dollars have been passed down through generations of the Jack Daniel family, and not necessarily the Green family."
Maturing barrels of whiskey in a barrel house on the grounds of the Jack Daniel Distillery in Lynchburg, Tennessee. (Photo courtesy Jack Daniel's) Image credit: VOA
Weaver's Uncle Nearest Premium Whiskey has joined forces with Jack Daniel's to launch a program that provides support, expertise and resources to African-American entrepreneurs entering the spirits industry.
Staples says her family is thrilled their great-great-grandfather is finally being recognized.
"It's kind of mind-boggling … and we are so proud," Staples says. "And to think that from here to Africa, that recipe goes all the way back. And to think that he played such an important role in establishing this company. It sometimes seems unreal. It really does."
Because of Weaver's tenacity, Green's story, although left untold for more than a century, will not be lost to history. But that's not the case with so many other stories of Black achievement and contributions to the nation.
"Part of telling his story and sharing his legacy is to give credit and to give attention to a person who, if it wasn't for him, we wouldn't have the Jack Daniel whiskey as we know it today," Benjamin says. "It showcases yet another example of how formerly enslaved people, Black people, African American people who have really built this country, are left out of the dominant narrative that we tell." (VOA/RN)
(This article is originally written by Dora Mekouar)
Keywords: Jack Daniel's, Whiskey, Nathan Green, Slavery, Black achievement
Cricket fans can now book the ultimate experience with the official accommodation booking partner for the ICC Men's T20 World Cup, Booking.com. The T20 Pavillion, a bespoke cricket-themed luxury stay that transforms the Presidential Suite at Grand Hyatt Mumbai Hotel and Residences into a classic cricket stadium.
The suite offers guests an all-inclusive once-in-a-lifetime experience during the India vs Pakistan ICC Men's T20 World Cup match on October 24, 2021, packed with quirks and luxuries that is sure to satisfy even the biggest cricket enthusiast. Additionally, as a part of the experience, guests will also have the exclusive opportunity to meet Bollywood actor Shraddha Kapoor at The T20 Pavilion.
The booking window that opens at 4:30 p.m. on Saturday and will be booked on a 'first come, first serve' basis with check-in date on October 24, 2021 and check-out on October 25, 2021. | Photo by Alessandro Bogliari on Unsplash
For one night only, guests can soak in the energy of a roaring stadium to enjoy the epic match on a life-sized screen while seated on comfortable sofas -- just like the luxury box seats at the stadium. They can also head to the locker room (dining room) next to the field (living room) to have some energy drinks, just like a cricketer would do or head to the bedroom, transformed into a net practice area. It's got the field, the pitch, the locker room, pitching nets and cricket memorabilia infused in every element of the room.
The booking window opens at 4:30 p.m. on Saturday and will be booked on a 'first come, first serve' basis with check-in date on October 24, 2021, and check-out on October 25, 2021. The T20 Pavilion is priced at Rs 6666 only in honour of all the great sixes smashed at the T20 World Cup. The T20 Pavilion can accommodate up to four guests. Cricket fans can visit the website or mobile app to book this cricket-inspired stay. (IANS/ MBI)
Amid the rush to find quick treatments for Covid-19 last year, the world saw a global race to find new stem cell-based treatments. Now, researchers report that such therapies were filled with violations of government regulations, inflated medical claims and distorted public communication. There are reports of patients suffering physical harm -- including blindness and death -- from unproven stem cell therapies.
"Efforts to rapidly develop therapeutic interventions should never occur at the expense of the ethical and scientific standards that are at the heart of responsible clinical research and innovation," said lead study author Laertis Ikonomou, associate professor of oral biology at University at Buffalo, New York. There are clinics offering unproven and unsafe "stem cell" therapies that promise to prevent Covid-19 by strengthening the immune system or improving overall health, the researchers noted in the paper published in the journal Stem Cell Reports.
There are reports of patients suffering physical harm -- including blindness and death -- from unproven stem cell therapies. | Photo by Viktor Forgacs on Unsplash
The findings from preliminary studies on possible stem cell-based Covid-19 treatments are frequently being exaggerated through press releases, social media and uncritical news media reports. Clinics selling supposed stem cell treatments on a direct-to-consumer basis sometimes use these findings and news reports to exploit the fears of vulnerable patients by unethically advertising the unproven benefits of stem cell treatments to boost the immune system, regenerate lung tissue and prevent transmission of Covid-19, said co-author Leigh Turner from the University of California, Irvine.
"Patients suffer financially as well, as the products range in price from a few thousand to tens of thousands of dollars, and people are often encouraged to receive the expensive treatments every few months," added Ikonomou. Patients led to believe they are protected against Covid-19 may decide against vaccination, stop wearing masks, cease engaging in physical distancing, or otherwise avoid behaviours intended to promote personal safety and public health.
They may also become less likely to take part in carefully-developed clinical trials conducted by companies that follow ethical standards. "Scientists, regulators and policymakers must guard against the proliferation of poorly designed, underpowered and duplicative studies that are launched with undue haste because of the pandemic, but are unlikely to provide convincing, clinically meaningful safety and efficacy data," Turner stressed. (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: findings,studies,therapies,unproven,reports,treatments, pandemic, covid, world