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South Asian Summer Monsoon has been researched extensively using both observational and proxy-based climate data.

By Nivedita Khandekar

Indian scientists discovered that warm/cold temperatures in Antarctica exhibit a near one-to-one coupling with weak/strong monsoon phases throughout the 145 kyr period (approximately a millennium), implying a significant mechanical relationship between them during the period.

Four scientists from Goa's National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), which is part of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, and Goa University's School of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences reconstructed the dynamics of the summer monsoon circulation from an upstream region that is ideal for studying its link to the southern high-latitude climate. The known records of previous summer monsoon variability are mostly based on downstream hydrology reconstruction, which is linked to the thermodynamics of the river.

"The impact of northern high-latitude climatic variability on the South Asian Summer Monsoon has been researched extensively using both observational and proxy-based climate data.

In comparison, only a few studies have attempted to investigate the South Asian Summer Monsoon's southern high latitude relationship "According to the research.

The summer monsoon in South Asia delivers a lot of heat and moisture over the equator. As a result of sensible heating caused by the Sun's seasonal location, a low-pressure system forms over the northwest Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau.

After reaching the equator, south-easterlies become southwest (summer) monsoon winds, hence a substantial association is predicted.

The findings of the study, which were published in the journal 'Polar Science' in October as 'a 145-year record of upstream changes in Indian monsoon circulation and their link to southern high-latitude climate,' "are consistent with our results where warm (cold) Antarctic conditions appear to cause synchronous decline (increase) in monsoon circulation, most likely through an equatorial Indian Ocean bridge," said the researchers.

Apart from being directly impacted by the summer monsoon winds, the tropical Indian Ocean is also well adapted to investigating any high southern-latitude inter-hemispheric influence on the circulation. "We report oxygen and carbon isotopic abundance of two depth-stratified foraminifera species from a sediment core from the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean encompassing large sections of the previous two glacial eras," according to the research.

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During this time, the carbon isotopic composition predominantly reflects signs of monsoon-induced upwelling. Throughout the 145-kyr era, spectral and wavelet studies reveal dominating strength in the precession band.

"A multi-proxy record of monsoon wind stress from the Western Arabian Sea, a location characterised by strong seasonal south-westerly summer monsoon wind, complements our record of summer monsoon variability.

When we compare our data to the climatic data from Antarctica during the previous two glacial eras, we see consistent shifts in cross-equatorial summer monsoon flow and Antarctic temperatures, with warm (cold) conditions in Antarctica being strongly connected to weak (strong) monsoon circulation."

The sub-orbital variation of cross-equatorial monsoon flow appears to be considerably modulated by millennial scale variability in the southern high latitude zone, most likely via affecting the millennial scale variability in the southern high latitude region. (IANS/PR)

(keywords: Scientist, Monsoon, Polar Science, southern-latitude, inter-hemispheric influence)



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