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Well, the primary purpose of putting images of different monuments, animals, sites, temples, persons, etc. is to show the country's rich culture and biodiversity to the world. And so, images which are printed on the Indian currency have their own story and significance.
Let us now find out which Indian currency has which image printed on it!
One Rupee Note
A quick fact here is that One Rupee Note was first printed in India during World War I. Before this, silver coins of one rupee with a picture of George V was in circulation. But, due to World War I, the supply of silver coins got shortened, and hence the government printed started printing one rupee note from 30 November, 1917 onwards. It must be noted that only One Rupee Note is such note which is printed by the Ministry of Finance and not the Reserve Bank of India. The front side of One Rupee Note has an image of One Rupee Coin, and the reverse side of the note has an image of an oil exploration site.
Reverse side One Rupee Note. Photo by RBI.
Two Rupees Note
The Reserve Bank of India has stopped printing Two Rupees Note because of its high cost of printing, but the old notes are still legal in the market. Interestingly, the front side of Two Rupees Note has an image of the 'Ashoka Emblem', and the reverse side of the note has an image of India's first satellite, named "Aryabhatta". This note, in a way, shows India's progress in the field of science and technology.
Reverse side Two Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Five Rupees Note
Again, due to the increasing cost of printing, the Reserve Bank of India has stopped printing Five Rupees Note, but already printed notes are still circulated in the market. The front side of Five Rupees Note has a picture of Mahatma Gandhi, and an image of a farmer ploughing the field is printed on the reverse side. This note shows the importance of agriculture in the Indian economy.
Reverse side of Five Rupees Note.Photo by Wikimedia Commons.
Ten Rupees Note
Interestingly, the cost of printing one Ten Rupees Note is around 96 paisa. The new Ten Rupees Note has two images on the front; one of the Ashoka's Emblem and the other of Mahatma Gandhi. On the reverse side of the note, images of the wheel at the Konark Sun Temple is printed along with the "Swaccha Bharat" or Clean India logo.
Reverse side of Ten Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Twenty Rupees Note
The cost of printing one Twenty Rupees Note is almost equivalent to the cost of printing one Ten Rupees Note. The front side of the note has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the Ashoka's Emblem, and the reverse side of the note has an image of Ellora caves.
Reverse side of Twenty Rupees Note.Photo by RBI
Fifty Rupees Note
The cost of new Fifty Rupees Note is around ₹1.81. Again, the front side of the note has an image of Mahatma Gandhi, Ashoka's Emblem, and the Indian Parliament. On the reverse side of the note, image of the Chariot of Hampi and logo of Swaccha Bharat is printed. Hampi is a UNESCO recognised World Heritage Site located in Karnataka.
Reverse side of Fifty Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Hundred Rupees Note
Interestingly, the cost of printing one Hundred Rupees Note is ₹1.20. The front side of the note has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the Ashoka's Emblem, while on the reverse side of the note, image of Rani ki Vav is printed. Rani ki Vav is a stepwell situated in the town of Patan in Gujarat, India. This place is also listed as one of the UNESCO's World Heritage Sites since the year 2014.
Reverse side of Hundred Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Two Hundred Rupees Note
The cost of printing one Two Hundred Rupees Note is around ₹2.93. The front side of the note again has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the Ashoka's Emblem, and the reverse side of the note has an image of the famous Stupa at Sanchi. Sanchi Stupa is an important monument of Indian Architecture. This Great Stupa was commissioned by the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka the Great, in the 3rd century BCE. This place is, too, recognised as World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Reverse side of Two Hundred Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Five Hundred Rupees Note
The new cost of printing one Five Hundred Rupees Note is around ₹2.94. As usual, the front side has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the Ashoka's Emblem, and on the reverse side of the note, image of the Red Fort and logo of Swaccha Bharat is printed.
Reverse side of Five Hundred Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
Two Thousand Rupees Note
It must be noted that this note is being printed for the first time in India. Moreover, due to advanced security features, the cost of printing of one Two Thousand Rupees Note is around ₹3.54. The front side, again, has an image of Mahatma Gandhi and the Ashoka's Emblem, and on the reverse side of the note, image of Mangalyaan, which was launched by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in the year 2013. In fact, this launch made India the first Asian nation to reach the Martian orbit, and the first ever nation in the world to do so on its maiden attempt. Along with the image of Mangalyaan, logo of Swaccha Bharat is also printed.
Reverse side of Two Thousand Rupees Note.Photo by RBI.
The Supreme Court on Tuesday agreed to examine a seeking direction to the Election Commission to de-register a political party, which fails to comply with the court's direction to disclose criminal antecedents of candidates fielded in polls. Advocate Ashwini Upadhyay requested a bench headed by Chief Justice N.V. Ramana and comprising Justices A.S. Bopanna and Hima Kohli to list the petition urgently, against the backdrop of the ongoing election process. He contended that nomination for the first phase of the Uttar Pradesh Assembly election has started, and the political parties and candidates are brazenly violating the top court judgments.
After briefly hearing Upadhyay, the bench said: "We will consider it... will give a date".
The plea argued that allowing criminals to stand for election threatens democracy and secularism. | Wikipedia
The plea claimed that the cause of action for filing the plea arose after the Samajwadi Party fielded alleged gangster Nahid Hasan from Kairana but neither published his criminal records in electronic, print and social media nor the reason for his selection within 48 hours. On February 13, last year, Shamli police imposed the Gangster Act on Nahid Hasan, who is a two-time MLA from Kairana. "He (Hasan) has multiple criminal cases and is the 'mastermind' behind the Hindu exodus from Kairana. There are many criminal cases including fraud and extortion, and he was declared a fugitive by Special MLA-MP Court," the plea said.
The plea argued that the consequences of permitting criminals to contest and become legislators are extremely serious for democracy and secularism. The plea sought a direction to the Election Commission to take steps to ensure that every political party publishes the details regarding criminal cases of each candidate along with the reason for such selection on the homepage of its official website in bold letters within 48 hours in the spirit of top court orders passed on September 25, 2018, and February 2, 2020. (IANS/ MBI)
(Keywords: uttar pradesh assembly election, hima kohli, justices a.s. bopanna, chief justice n.v. ramana, political party, election commission, the supreme court, tainted candidates, action, plea)
There will be no chief guest at the Republic Day parade this year also as the plan to host state heads of five Central Asian countries -- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan -- seems to have been cancelled due to the Covid situation in India as well as in the respective nations. Though the Ministry of External Affairs is yet to confirm this officially.
If the guests arrive, then this would be the second time when India hosts a group of state heads as the chief guests on the Republic Day. In 2018, state heads of ASEAN countries graced the occasion with their presence. Apart from Kazakhstan, none of these countries' state heads had been invited as the chief guests on the Republic Day. In 2009, Kazakhstan's then president Nursultan Nazarbayev was the Chief Guest.
The Government of India is in no mood to take any risk to invite any foreign guest.Unsplash
As per sources, due to the corona situation, the Government of India is in no mood to take any risk to invite any foreign guest, so the plan seems to have been cancelled. Last year, British Prime minister Boris Johnson was invited for the same, but later cancelled due to rising corona cases in the UK.
In the past, there have been occasions when the Republic Day ceremony was celebrated without any foreign guest. In 1966, there was no foreign chief guest in the Republic Day parade ceremony as the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri had passed away in Tashkent in January, and Indira Gandhi took oath as Prime Minister on January 24. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : chief, guest, Republic Day, parade, India, January, pandemic, 2022, host, nation, guest, invite, foreign, occasion, presence, celebrate.)
A team of scientists from the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) have found a cure for those suffering from chronic wounds, particularly with diabetic foot ulcers. The team led by Prof Gopal Nath of the department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, said that wounds that took months and years to heal, could now be cured in days or months. The findings of study have been published in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, US.
Prof Nath said that a wound is defined as a breach in the skin or body tissues due to injury. An acute wound is defined as a "recent break that is yet to progress through sequential stages of healing". The wounds where normal healing process is stalled due to underlying pathology (vascular and diabetes) or infection beyond three months is defined as chronic wound. While chronic wounds always get infected, the contaminated wounds are reasonably susceptible to infection.
A significant improvement could be achieved in the form of complete wound epithelization within a few weeks.Towfiqu barbhuiya / Unsplash
Infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilm formation halt healing progress. These wounds cause significant psychological and physical morbidity. The traditional treatment strategies often succeed in healing wounds, he said adding that many wounds have been observed recalcitrant to them, leading to persistence and recurrent infections. Search for alternatives to antibiotics has now become a compulsion. Fortunately, bacteriophage therapy is a re-emerging solution to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Prof Nath's team carried out phage therapy of acute and chronic infected wounds in animals and clinical studies. It showed efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mice wound model. Furthermore, they evaluated the efficacy of phage cocktails in animal models' acute and chronic osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. They also observed biofilm eradication from K wire in rabbits' wound infection model. Clinical trials of phage therapy initiated by the BHU have reported the efficacy of topical phage in healing chronic wounds in three prospective exploratory studies and no adverse events mimicking the results in vivo animal models.
Scientists have found a cure for those suffering from diabetic foot ulcers. Unsplash
A clinical study by Gupta demonstrated the significant role of bacteriophage therapy in the chronic wounds associated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The study employed a total of twenty patients with chronic non-healing ulcers for more than six weeks duration. A significant improvement could be achieved in the form of complete wound epithelization within a few weeks. Another study, employing 48 patients having a minimum of one eligible full-thickness wound that did not heal in six weeks with convention wound management, showed the promising result, and significant improvement was observed in the wound healing.
The study projected that specific phage therapy is equally effective regardless of the diabetic or non-diabetic status of the patient though the healing was relatively delayed in diabetic patients. Another successful study has shown encouraging results on healing process of infected acute traumatic wounds. The average number of days required for complete granulation of wounds and attaining sterility and healing was half compared to conventional therapy. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : scientists, cure, chronic, wound, suffer, ulcer, diabetes, healing, pathology, health, infection, bacteria, study, patient, therapy, successful.)
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