New York- During pregnancy, mothers who smoke are at risk of metal disorders in their babies, warns a study.
According to the study, higher maternal nicotine level in the mother’s blood increased the odds 38 percent of having schizophrenia among their offsring.
Nicotine readily crosses the placenta into the foetal bloodstream, specifically targets foetal brain development, causing short- and long-term changes in cognition and potentially contributes to other neuro-developmental abnormalities.
“To our knowledge, this is the first biomarker-based study to show a relationship between foetal nicotine exposure and schizophrenia,” said senior author Alan Brown from Columbia University’s medical centre in the US.
“We employed a nationwide sample with the highest number of schizophrenia cases to date in a study of this type,” Brown added in the paper published online in the American Journal of Psychiatry.
The team examined nearly 1,000 cases of schizophrenia and matched controls among offspring born in Finland from 1983-1998, who were ascertained from the country’s national registry.
The findings persisted after adjusting for important confounding factors including maternal and parental psychiatric history, socio-economic status and maternal age.
Heavy smoking based on cotinine, a reliable marker of nicotine in maternal sera, was reported by 20 percent of the mothers of cases, but only 14.7 percent of the mothers of controls.
During pregnancy smoking contributes to significant problems in utero and after the birth problems like low birth weight and attentional difficulties.
“These findings underscore the value of ongoing public health education on the potentially debilitating and largely preventable, consequences that smoking may have on children over time,” Brown noted.
The study also showed that the mother who smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of bipolar disorder after giving birth.(IANS)
Tuberculosis (TB) bacterium primarily affects the lungs, but can also spread and cause secondary infections to the uterus and even the fallopian tubes, which can reduce chances of pregnancy, health experts warned ahead of the World Tuberculosis Day that falls on March 24.
Usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria, TB is the top infectious killer worldwide, claiming around 4,400 lives a day.
When the bacteria attacks the uterus, it causes uterine tuberculosis (also known as pelvic TB) which mostly affects women during the child-bearing period and is usually diagnosed during an infertility check-up.
“Women are more often affected than males and due to uterine tuberculosis, two out of 10 females are unable to bear a child,” Shweta Goswami, Infertility Specialist at Jaypee Hospital in Noida, told IANS.
“In extreme cases, the uterine lining become so thin that it is unable to bear an implantation resulting in miscarriage,” she added.
Mtb bacteria is transported by blood to other organs including reproductive organs and causes infection in fallopian tubes, uterus or in endometrial lining.
“Tuberculosis has the ability to severely damage the fallopian tubes, if not treated at the initial stage.. it can further lead to serious health complications and also result in infertility,” Goswami said.
Symptoms of TB in uterus include irregular menstruation, pelvic pain, continuous discharge which is stained with blood or without blood with a foul smell and bleeding after intercourse.
A 2018 study by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) showed that over 50 per cent of female patients in India coming for IVF procedure have been reported to have genital TB.
The prevalence of genital TB among Indian women has increased from 19 per cent in 2011 to 30 per cent in 2015.
In over 95 per cent of the cases, the infection was found to affect the fallopian tubes, in 50 per cent the endometrium and 30 per cent the ovaries.
Moreover, nearly 75 per cent of women with genital TB were found to be infertile, and 50-60 per cent of women with infertility were found to have genital TB, the report stated.
“Treating uterine TB should be of the utmost importance as soon as it is detected. There is social stigma attached with TB which makes it difficult for people to come openly and talk about it,” said Shobha Gupta, Medical Director and IVF Specialist from Mother’s Lap IVF Centre, New Delhi.
There are combined tests which are used to investigate whether a person is suffering from TB which are a combination of AFB smear, culture and PCR for tuberculosis.
“Also, with medication, women can be helped to conceive through ART, either IVF of or IUI, where intervention can be done to repair the after-effects,” Gupta noted.
According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) ‘Global Tuberculosis Report 2018’, India accounted for 27 per cent of the 10 million people, who had developed TB in 2017, besides making up 32 per cent of global TB deaths among HIV-negative people and 27 per cent of combined TB deaths.
To combat the disease, it is essential that diagnostic facilities reach the farthest areas and people made aware of the consequences of contracting TB, said Rajkumar, Consultant Internal Medicine at New Delhi-based Indian Spinal Injuries Centre.
“It is also important that people thwart the factors that contribute to TB by making their living conditions more hygienic, improving immunity, and having better access to nutrition,” he added. (IANS)