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The game was also known as 'Parampadam' personifying a human's life span


Snakes and Ladders, a worldwide popular racing board game that we all have enjoyed playing at some point in our life. In today's version of the game there are a hundred squares on the board with an approximately equal number of snakes that bring you down, and ladders that take you up. The game is based on sheer luck, whoever rolls the dice and reaches the hundredth square first wins. However, the game has lost its meaning and purpose in time, originally, the game was meant to teach Hindu values, morals and ethics to children.


In ancient India, the game snakes and ladder was known as Mokshapat or Moksha Patamu or Parama Padam. Historians claim that the game was invented by Swami Gyandev in the 13th century AD; meanwhile, other opinions state that the game was played as early as during the 2nd century BC. The whole point of the game was to teach Hindu children about Hindu Dharma and values, Dharma and Karma, where the ladders represented the virtues and the morality you show at every point of life whereas the snakes represented the vices and your wrongdoings in life. The game was played with cowrie shells and dice.

Primarily the game had far fewer ladders as compared to the snakes indicating that to walk the path of righteousness and achieve nirvana you must face numerous difficulties and at every point of life you'll have luscious opportunities to please your greed but eventually, it will only trap you in the vicious cycle of rebirth and life. All your good deeds represented as ladder takes you closer to moksha (nirvana) and all your evils lead to you descend only to go through the same cycle all over again.

In the earliest of games, all squares had some deed/meaning, square 12 was faith, 51 was Reliability, 57 was Generosity, 76 was Knowledge, and 78 was Asceticism. These were the squares where ladders were placed. Meanwhile, Square 41 was for Disobedience, 44 for Arrogance, 49 for Vulgarity, 52 for Theft, 58 for Lying, 62 for Drunkenness, 69 for Debt, 84 for Anger, 92 for Greed, 95 for Pride, 73 for Murder and 99 for Lust. These were the squares where the snakes were placed. And lastly, the Square 100 represented Nirvana or Moksha (Salvation).

A screenshot of the Buddhi Yoga board The squares are illustrated and all squares depicted some meaning either evil or good.Khol Khel


The game was also known as 'Parampadam' personifying a human's life span. Similar to Mokshapat there are a hundred squares on a board, the ladders take you up while the snakes bring you down. The only difference is that the squares are illustrated, the top of the ladder depicts a God or one of the several heavens namely- Kailasa, Vaikuntha, Brahmaloka and so on, while the bottom of the ladder describes a good quality. Hence, the whole climbing a ladder indicated that good quality takes you to heaven. Simultaneously, the snake's head on the board depicted a negative quality or an asura (demon).

As the game advances, the various karma and samsara, good deeds and evil deeds take you up and down the board. Interspersed are plants, people and animals. The game served a dual purpose of entertainment, as well as teaching the dos and don'ts, ethical values and morality, divine rewards and punishments. The final goal i.e. square number 100 leads to Vaikuntha meaning heaven, depicted by Lord Vishnu surrounded by his devotees, or Kailasa with Shiva, Parvati, Ganesha and Skanda, and their devotees.

The game was taken to England in 1892 due to the colonization of India and modified according to Victorian values. Later it was introduced to the US in 1943 under the name "Chutes and Ladder". The modern version of the game is simply called, "Snakes and Ladders" with an almost equalized number of snakes and ladders and serves no moral purpose, now it's a mere game of luck played for entertainment.

Keywords: Snakes and Ladders, Karma, Morals, Virtues, Vices, Vaikuntha, Moksha.


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It is believed that when a woman goes through her menstrual cycle, she goes through the different lunar energies.

Well, if you'll notice then the moon takes twenty-nine days to complete its lunar cycle, whereas women's menstrual cycle is generally 28 days! Coincidence? I think, not.

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Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourised in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.

A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".

"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.

"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.

The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".

Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.


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Dozens of female high school and university students in Afghanistan have joined vocational centers to learn tailoring and cosmetology

Dozens of female high school and university students in Afghanistan have joined vocational centers to learn tailoring and cosmetology as the women and girls have been banned from school and university since the Taliban took over the country, Tolo News reported.

According to these girls, sitting at home is very difficult for them, therefore they are willing to learn a profession.

"It has been a couple of months that we are at home since schools and universities were closed. We have to learn a profession or a job because we can't sit like this at home," said Samira Sharifi, a student.

"I want to learn a profession for my future to help my family, we want our schools to be opened so that we can carry on with our education," said Mahnaz Ghulami, a student.

Most of the trainees in the vocational centres are students of high schools and universities.

After the closure of high schools and universities across Afghanistan, Herat female students have started gaining vocational training in the province.

"We have decided to learn tailoring along with our education," said Shaqaiq Ganji, a student.

"It's necessary for every woman to learn tailoring to help her family and her husband, especially in this bad economic situation," said Laili Sofizada, a teacher.

Due to the closure of schools and universities, the number of students in vocational centers doubled compared to recent years, the report added.

"Our classes had the capacity of 20 to 25 students but we increased it to 45 students, because most of the students have lost their spirit, and their schools and universities have closed," said Fatima Tokhi, director of technical and professional affairs at the Herat department of labour and social affairs.

The Labour and Social Affairs department of Herat said the department is working to provide more opportunities for Herat girls and women to learn vocational training.

"The art and professional sector and the kindergarten departments have started their activities, we support them and supervise their activities," said Mulla Mohammad Sabit, head of the labour and social affairs of Herat.

During the past two months, most of the women and girls who worked in state and private institutions lost their jobs and are trying to learn handicrafts and vocational training. (IANS/JB)


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