Wednesday September 19, 2018

Stress During Pregnancy Increases Risk of Mood Disorder in Daughters

The researchers then used brain imaging to examine connectivity in the newborns soon after birth, before the external environment had begun shaping brain development,

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Maternal stress can increase mood disorder risk in daughters: Study
Maternal stress can increase mood disorder risk in daughters: Study Pixabay
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Daughters born to women with high levels of cortisol — a stress hormone — during pregnancy could be at an increased risk of developing anxious and depressive-like behaviours by the age of two, a new study has reported.

The effect of elevated maternal cortisol appeared to result from patterns of stronger communication between brain regions important for sensory and emotion processing.

It could be because maternal stress may alter connectivity in amygdala — a brain region important for emotion processing — in the developing foetus, suggesting that vulnerability for developing a mood disorder is programmed from birth.

This could be an early point at which the risk for common psychiatric disorders begins to differ in males and females, the researchers explained.

“Higher maternal cortisol during pregnancy was linked to alterations in the newborns’ functional brain connectivity, affecting how different brain regions can communicate with each other,” said Claudia Buss from Charite University Medicine Berlin in Germany.

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Higher maternal cortisol during pregnancy was linked to alterations in the newborns’ functional brain connectivity. Pixabay

“Many mood and anxiety disorders are approximately twice as common in females as in males. The study highlights one unexpected sex-specific risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders in females,” said John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry, in which the study is published.

Conversely, sons born to mothers with high cortisol during pregnancy did not demonstrate the stronger brain connectivity, or an association between maternal cortisol and mood symptoms, the researchers said.

For the study, the team measured cortisol levels over multiple days in early, mid and late pregnancy.

Also Read: Microbes May be Stirring Up Anxiety and Depression in Obese People

Measurements taken from nearly 100 mothers reflected typical variation in maternal cortisol levels.

The researchers then used brain imaging to examine connectivity in the newborns soon after birth, before the external environment had begun shaping brain development, and measured infant anxious and depressive-like behaviours at two years of age. (IANS)

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Men Have Greater Endurance for Stress, says Study

For the study, the researchers reviewed the cases of 572 men evaluated for anti-incontinence surgery between 2007 and 2017

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Men can tolerate stress incontinence for years: Study. Pixabay

Men often tolerate stress urinary incontinence (SUI) for more than two years before seeking medical help and one-third put up with it for more than five years, a new study suggests.

SUI occurs when physical activity or exertion — a cough, heavy lifting, exercise — causes the bladder to leak urine.

The study, published in the journal Urology, found the median length of time the men had waited to seek treatment for their SUI was 32 months, with almost a third having waited more than five years.

They also found that patients in their 80s had waited a median of more than seven years.

“Male SUI is rare but is known to have significant negative psychosocial and emotional effects and represents a common reason for post-treatment anxiety and depression,” said co-author Allen Morey, Professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre in the US.

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They also found that patients in their 80s had waited a median of more than seven years. Pixabay

But there are simple and safe solutions — including minor surgeries — that can either help boost a weakened sphincter muscle for patients with minimal leakage (the sling procedure), or replace the sphincter muscle altogether (installation of an artificial urinary sphincter) for more severe cases of leakage, the researcher said.

“Using new diagnostic techniques, we are now able to accurately diagnose and streamline treatment recommendations to resolve this bothersome problem for our patients,” Morey mentioned.

For the study, the researchers reviewed the cases of 572 men evaluated for anti-incontinence surgery between 2007 and 2017.

Also Read- Spitzer Telescope of NASA Marks 15 Years in Space

The study calls on men’s general practitioners and urologists to perform a standing cough test, in which a patient coughs while the doctor watches for any accidental urine release, as a routine part of their male patients’ physicals.

“Our goal is to spread the word that effective and safe treatments exist for men with stress urinary incontinence, but also to facilitate an immediate and accurate diagnosis among stress urinary incontinence patients,” said first author Joceline Fuchs from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre. (Bollywood Country)

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