Never miss a story

Get subscribed to our newsletter


×
Report on how and why the stars die. Pixabay

Researchers from Northwestern University (NU) has found that by studying all three “flavors” involved in a supernova, they have unlocked more clues as to how and why stars die.

Contrary to the past practice of simplifying studies by studying one flavor while ignoring the other two, the researchers in the new study created a non-linear simulation of a “fast conversion” when three neutrino flavors are present, where a fast conversion is marked by neutrinos interacting and changing flavors.


Follow NewsGram on Twitter to stay updated about the World news.

They removed the assumption that the three flavors of neutrinos, muon, electron, and tau neutrinos, have the same angular distribution, giving them each a different distribution. A two-flavor setup of the same concept looks at electron neutrinos and “x” neutrinos, in which x can be either muon or tau neutrinos and where differences between the two are insignificant.

When an enormous number of neutrinos are sent careening during the massive explosion of a core-collapse supernova, they begin to oscillate. Interactions between neutrinos change the properties and behaviors of the whole system, creating a coupled relationship.


The new study created a non-linear simulation of a “fast conversion.” Pixabay

Therefore, when neutrino density is high, a fraction of neutrinos interchange flavors. When different flavors are emitted in different directions deep within a star, conversions occur rapidly and are called “fast conversions.” Interestingly, the research found that as the number of neutrinos grows, so do their conversion rates, regardless of mass, reports Xinhua news agency.

ALSO READ: 2020: The Defining Year For The Indian Space Sector

“We are trying to convince the community that when you take these fast conversions into account, you have to use all three flavors to understand it,” said senior author Manibrata Sen, a postdoctoral researcher currently based at NU under the Network for Neutrinos, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Symmetries program at the University of California – Berkeley.

“A proper understanding of fast oscillations can actually hold the key to why some stars explode from supernovas.” In the next step, the researchers hope to make their results more generic by including spatial dimensions in addition to components of momentum and time. The study has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. (IANS)


Popular

Photo by Ilayza Macayan on Unsplash

Bullying may occur anywhere, at any time, in person or online (cyberbullying), and can take many forms, including verbal, physical, and social.

What Is Bullying?

Bullying is a pattern of recurrent aggressive behavior in which one person (or a group of individuals) in a position of authority intentionally intimidate or abuse another individual to cause bodily or emotional harm to that other. Bullying may take place in either a physical or verbal manner. Bullied individuals, as well as those who bully others, may have long-term repercussions.

Bullying may occur anywhere, at any time, in person or online (cyberbullying), and can take many forms, including verbal, physical, and social. Bullies utilize their position of power — such as physical strength, knowledge of something embarrassing, or popularity — to exert control over or damage other people. Many people assume that bullying occurs solely during childhood; nevertheless, bullying does not necessarily stop after a person reaches the age of adulthood.

Keep Reading Show less
Wikimedia Commons

Copper earrings

Silver and gold have always been preferred when it comes to wearing jewellery. Right from the times of monarchy in India, wealth and riches have been associated with wearing gold and silver for the various properties they have. Copper is a metal that has always been worn by the poor. It is not a metal that carries a significant association with health or wealth, but wearing at least one article of copper is extremely beneficial for health.

Copper is a reddish-brown metal that cannot be worn on its own. It has to be worn in the form of an alloy to prevent a reaction. Copper oxidizes in air and forms a green layer on it when exposed, much like the Statue of Liberty. Usually, bangles, chains, or rings of copper always have brass and traces of silver in them which helps with stabilizing its reactivity.

Keep Reading Show less
Photo by Brian Kostiuk on Unsplash

Traditional players are very strong in the consumer laptop market.

By Md Waquar Haider

When popular smartphone brands like Xiaomi and realme entered the laptop market in India last year, they were expected to shake the existing giants, specifically under the Rs 50,000 category. However, chip shortage and supply crunch have somewhat dented their plans to make a significant mark to date. According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. The first one is a massive supply crunch in the laptop component market and only big brands are able to get volume and supplies.

The other factor is that the traditional players are very strong in the consumer laptop market. Top 3 players control more than 70 per cent of the market and strong portfolio, distribution, and channel reach as well as brand marketing has helped them massively. "New brands can surely make a dent in the consumer laptop market but are challenged by supply issues right now. Watch out for them in 2022 as and when supply situation eases up," Navkendar Singh, Research Director, Client Devices & IPDS, IDC India told IANS.

Dominated by HP Inc, Lenovo and Dell, the traditional PC market (inclusive of desktops, notebooks, and workstations) in India continued to be robust as the shipments grew by 50.5 per cent year-over-year (YoY) in the second quarter (Q2), according to IDC. Notebook PCs continue to hold more than three-fourth share in the overall category and grew 49.9 per cent YoY in 2Q21, reporting a fourth consecutive quarter with over 2 million units. Desktops also indicated a recovery as shipments grew 52.3 per cent YoY after recording the lowest shipments of the decade in 2Q20.

According to Prabhu Ram, Head, Industry Intelligence Group, CMR, driven by the pandemic and the associated accelerated pivot to remote work, learn and unwind culture, PCs have been witnessing heightened demand. "Despite the current supply chain constraints, PCs are here to stay in the new never normal. In the run-up to the festive season, established PC market leaders will continue to leverage their brand salience and gain market share," Ram told IANS.

a computer chip close up According to industry experts, the issue with smartphone makers entering the laptop category is two-fold. | Photo by Manuel on Unsplash

Keep reading... Show less