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Is the moon’s surface evolving?

During a lunar eclipse, the temperature swing is so dramatic that it's as if the surface of the moon goes from being in an oven to being in a freezer in just a few hours

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The January 31 full moon is going to be about 14 per cent brighter than usual and will pass through the shadow of the earth. Pixabay
The January 31 full moon is going to be about 14 per cent brighter than usual and will pass through the shadow of the earth. Pixabay
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  • The last supermoon will seen on 31st January 2018
  • Using the astronomer’s equivalent of a heat-sensing, or thermal camera, the team will conduct their investigations at invisible wavelengths where heat is sensed
  • The research will be conducted from the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii

The forthcoming rare celestial event on January 31, in which three lunar events will come together in an unusual overlap called as ‘super blue blood moon’, will give scientists a special opportunity to understand the evolution of the surface of the moon.

The January 31 supermoon, which is the first blue moon of 2018, marks the last in a trilogy of supermoons. The first happened on December 3, 2017, NASA said in a report.

ALSO READ: Star Gazers around the World get to admire the Supermoon- Largest, Brightest Full Moon in nearly Seven Decades

In addition, a lunar eclipse will take place in the morning on January 31, temporarily giving the moon a reddish colour known as a blood moon. Pixabay
In addition, a lunar eclipse will take place in the morning on January 31, temporarily giving the moon a reddish colour known as a blood moon. Pixabay

The eclipse will offer researchers a chance to see what happens when the surface of the moon cools quickly, helping them to understand some of the characteristics of the regolith — the mixture of soil and loose rocks on the surface — and how it changes over time.

“During a lunar eclipse, the temperature swing is so dramatic that it’s as if the surface of the moon goes from being in an oven to being in a freezer in just a few hours,” said Noah Petro, deputy project scientist for NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Using the astronomer’s equivalent of a heat-sensing, or thermal camera, the team will conduct their investigations at invisible wavelengths where heat is sensed, from the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii,

These studies will help us tell the story of how impacts large and small are changing the surface of the Moon over geological time. Pixabay
These studies will help us tell the story of how impacts large and small are changing the surface of the Moon over geological time. Pixabay

ALSO READ: End of the world? Friday will see the rise of a Black Moon

“The whole character of the moon changes when we observe with a thermal camera during an eclipse,” said Paul Hayne of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado-Boulder.

“In the dark, many familiar craters and other features can’t be seen, and the normally non-descript areas around some craters start to ‘glow’, because the rocks there are still warm,” Hayne added. (IANS)

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Century’s Longest Lunar Eclipse To Be Seen In India On July 27

The eclipse would also be visible in parts of South America, much of Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia

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Century’s Longest Lunar Eclipse To Be Seen In India On July 27
Century’s Longest Lunar Eclipse To Be Seen In India On July 27. Pixabay

The longest total lunar eclipse of this century would be visible from all parts of the country on July 27. The celestial body would also be tinged with a reddish hue, a phenomenon popularly referred to as a ‘blood moon’. Director, Research and Academic, MP Birla Institute of Fundamental Research, MP Birla Planetarium, Debiprosad Duari told PTI, “Viewers in India are lucky since the eclipse, both partial and the total, will be entirely visible from all parts of the country.”

The eclipse would also be visible in parts of South America, much of Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, he said. The total lunar eclipse would last for one hour and 43 minutes while partial eclipses, which would precede and follow the total eclipse, would last more than an hour, he said.

The partial eclipse of the moon would start at 11:54 pm Indian Standard Time on July 27 and the total eclipse would begin at 1 am on July 28, Duari said. The scientist said that at 1.52 am on July 28, the moon would look the darkest and it would continue till 2:43 am.

“After this period, the moon will remain partially eclipsed till 3:49 am of July 28. It will be a golden opportunity for celestial enthusiasts in India as the eclipse will be visible almost throughout the night,” he said.

During the July 27 total lunar eclipse, the moon has to pass through the central part of the Earth’s shadow. But on July 27 late night, the Full Moon would be near its apogee, the farthest point from the Earth in its orbit around the Earth, and it would be the smallest full moon of the year.

“This smaller and slower-moving full moon takes more time to cross the Earth’s shadow than does a full moon that is closer to Earth and moving faster in orbit. That is why a full moon at or near lunar apogee adds to the duration of a total lunar eclipse,” Duari said.

The full moon would plunge deeply into the Earth’s shadow on the night of July 27-28 when the distance of the Moon from the Earth just before the eclipse would be around 406,223 kilometre, he said.

During a total lunar eclipse, the Moon’s disk can take on a dramatically colourful appearance from bright orange to blood red and more rarely dark brown to very dark grey, depending upon the part of the Earth’s shadow it would be passing through.

This was the reason a totally eclipsed Moon, at times, was called as Blood Moon. Explaining the celestial phenomenon, Duari said a lunar eclipse takes place only at full moon.

“Whenever, the Sun, Earth and Moon come in a perfectly straight line, as the Sun’s rays fall on the Earth, the Earth’s shadow falls onto a patch of space, and only when the Moon enters that patch of shadow, we see a lunar eclipse,” he said.

lunar eclipse, blood moon cycle
lunar eclipse, blood moon cycle. Pixabay

Describing 2018, as a year of lunar eclipses, Duari said the last total lunar eclipse took place earlier this year on January 31.

“It was widely known as Super Blue Blood Moon as it was a so-called supermoon when a Moon appears extra big and bright being closest to the Earth in its elliptical orbit. A Blue Moon is the second full moon during a calendar month,” he said.

“The next total lunar eclipse on January 21, 2019, will be only for one hour and two minutes because it will pass to the north of the shadow’s centre,” Duari added.

Also read: January to have two supermoons, blue moon and total lunar eclipse

On whether it will be safe to view the lunar eclipses with naked eyes, Duari said, “No special filters are required to protect our eyes like those used for watching solar eclipses. One does not need a telescope to watch the eclipse, though a good pair of binoculars will enhance the experience.” (IANS)