Monday July 23, 2018

TB Vaccine May Help to Control Type-1 Diabetes, Says Study

Type - 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin

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Previous findings from animal experiments also show a significant connection between restrictive lung diseases and diabetes mellitus.
Previous findings from animal experiments also show a significant connection between restrictive lung diseases and diabetes mellitus.(IANS)
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A vaccine primarily used for treating tuberculosis (TB) may be effective in reducing high blood sugar among people with Type – 1 diabetes, results from a clinical trial has revealed.

Type – 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin.

The findings showed that, three years after receiving two administrations of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine four weeks apart, people with longstanding Type-1 diabetes showed an improvement in HbA1c — Aglycated haemoglobin — measured to test the overall sugar levels to near normal levels.

“This is clinical validation of the potential to stably lower blood sugars to near normal levels with a safe vaccine, even in patients with longstanding disease,” said Denise Faustman, director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Immunobiology Laboratory, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

The study, published in the journal npj Vaccine, also reported that the effects of BCG vaccine on blood sugar control appear to depend on a totally novel metabolic mechanism that increases cellular consumption of glucose.

The team analysed data from 282 human study participants — 52 with Type-1 diabetes who participated in the BCG clinical trials and 230 who contributed blood samples for mechanistic studies.

The results showed that the HbA1c levels of those receiving BCG had dropped by more than 10 per cent in three years after treatment and by more than 18 per cent in four years.

Also Read: Study: Plant-based Diets Can Help Diabetes Patients

The study showed that BCG vaccination induces epigenetic reprogramming at the chromatin architecture level and functional alterations indicative of a permanent change in immunity.

Thus, the clinical effects and the proposed mechanism add to the emerging consensus that the BCG vaccine can have a lasting and valuable impact on the immune system, the researchers said. (IANS)

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Tuberculosis Vaccine: New Approach Offers Better Protection

A new vaccination made from weakened herpes virus is offering better protection to TB

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  • New vaccine made using a common herpes virus is highly effect
  • Using the same approach an HIV/AIDS vaccine is also slated for human clinical trial in 2019
  • The study was published in journal Nature Medicine

A new vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) made using weakened form of a common Herpes virus, has been found highly effective in rhesus monkeys and is now moving toward testing in humans, scientists reveal.

The new vaccine completely protected 41 per cent monkeys and reduced overall TB disease by 68 per cent in vaccinated rhesus macaques, while 30 per cent had less severe disease than unvaccinated monkeys.

ALSO READ: Malnutrition makes children susceptible to TB

“Because rhesus monkeys are significantly more susceptible to TB than humans and given how effective our new vaccine has been in these monkeys, we feel that the human version of our vaccine could have the potential to be even more effective in protecting humans,” said lead investigator Louis Picker, Professor at the Oregon Health and Science University.

In the study, detailed in the journal Nature Medicine, the team used a weakened form of a common Herpes virus -- cytomegalovirus, or CMV, which infects most people without causing disease. Pixabay
In the study, detailed in the journal Nature Medicine, the team used a weakened form of a common Herpes virus — cytomegalovirus, or CMV, which infects most people without causing disease. Pixabay

 

The researchers re-engineered CMV with tiny bits of a disease-causing pathogen to create and maintain a high state of immunity against the pathogen in vaccinated monkeys.

This approach has the potential to work better than standard vaccines for aggressive pathogens that infect quickly, overrun a person’s immune response, or can hide from the immune system, Picker said.

The results showed 30 per cent of monkeys had less severe disease than unvaccinated monkeys. Pixabay
The results showed 30 per cent of monkeys had less severe disease than unvaccinated monkeys. Pixabay

In contrast, no measurable protection was found in the monkeys treated with the current standard TB vaccine, the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine.

Further, the team will work to better define the biological mechanisms by which their new TB vaccine works and would expand testing with plans to start a human clinical trial in 2020.

ALSO READ: Was the First Tuberculosis Hospital in Kentucky built inside a Cave?

“With more than 1.7 million people dying globally from TB each year and the rise of strains that are resistant to drug treatment, we need a better way to prevent this disease,” Picker said.

Using the same approach an HIV/AIDS vaccine is also slated for human clinical trial in 2019. (IANS)