Thursday November 14, 2019

TB Vaccine May Help to Control Type-1 Diabetes, Says Study

Type - 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin

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The study included 4,697 mothers and 4,832 children. (IANS)

A vaccine primarily used for treating tuberculosis (TB) may be effective in reducing high blood sugar among people with Type – 1 diabetes, results from a clinical trial has revealed.

Type – 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin.

The findings showed that, three years after receiving two administrations of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine four weeks apart, people with longstanding Type-1 diabetes showed an improvement in HbA1c — Aglycated haemoglobin — measured to test the overall sugar levels to near normal levels.

“This is clinical validation of the potential to stably lower blood sugars to near normal levels with a safe vaccine, even in patients with longstanding disease,” said Denise Faustman, director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Immunobiology Laboratory, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

The study, published in the journal npj Vaccine, also reported that the effects of BCG vaccine on blood sugar control appear to depend on a totally novel metabolic mechanism that increases cellular consumption of glucose.

The team analysed data from 282 human study participants — 52 with Type-1 diabetes who participated in the BCG clinical trials and 230 who contributed blood samples for mechanistic studies.

The results showed that the HbA1c levels of those receiving BCG had dropped by more than 10 per cent in three years after treatment and by more than 18 per cent in four years.

Also Read: Study: Plant-based Diets Can Help Diabetes Patients

The study showed that BCG vaccination induces epigenetic reprogramming at the chromatin architecture level and functional alterations indicative of a permanent change in immunity.

Thus, the clinical effects and the proposed mechanism add to the emerging consensus that the BCG vaccine can have a lasting and valuable impact on the immune system, the researchers said. (IANS)

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Researchers Find Drug to Delay Type-1 Diabetes by Two Years

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine

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Diabetes
According to the researchers, these novel findings may provide the basis for new therapies for patients who have heart disease complicated by diabetes. Pixabay

In a first, researchers have found that a treatment affecting the immune system effectively slowed the progression to clinical Type-1 diabetes in high risk individuals by two years or more.

“The results have important implications for people, particularly youth, who have relatives with the disease, as these individuals may be at high risk and benefit from early screening and treatment,” said Lisa Spain, Project Scientist from US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

The study, involving treatment with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (teplizumab), was conducted by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international collaboration aimed at discovering ways to delay or prevent Type-1 diabetes.

Participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group, which received a 14-day course of teplizumab, or the control group, which received a placebo.

All participants received glucose tolerance tests regularly until the study was completed, or until they developed clinical Type-1 diabetes – whichever came first.

During the trial, 72 per cent of the people in the control group developed clinical diabetes, compared to only 43 per cent of the teplizumab group.

diabetes
“Although Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes in parents are well-established risk factors for diabetes, we show that gestational diabetes mellitus may be a risk indicator for diabetes in the mother’s children before age 22,” . Pixabay

The median time for people in the control group to develop clinical diabetes was just over 24 months, while those who developed clinical diabetes in the treatment group had a median time of 48 months before progressing to diagnosis.

“The difference in outcomes was striking. This discovery is the first evidence we’ve seen that clinical Type-1 diabetes can be delayed with early preventive treatment,” Spain added.

Type-1 diabetes develops when the immune system’s T cells mistakenly destroy the body’s own insulin-producing beta cells.

Also Read- Cutting Sodium Intake May Prevent 94 Million Premature Deaths From CVD

Insulin is needed to convert glucose into energy. Teplizumab targets T cells to lessen the destruction of beta cells.

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine. (IANS)