TB Vaccine May Help to Control Type-1 Diabetes, Says Study

Type - 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin

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The study included 4,697 mothers and 4,832 children. (IANS)

A vaccine primarily used for treating tuberculosis (TB) may be effective in reducing high blood sugar among people with Type – 1 diabetes, results from a clinical trial has revealed.

Type – 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produce little or no insulin.

The findings showed that, three years after receiving two administrations of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine four weeks apart, people with longstanding Type-1 diabetes showed an improvement in HbA1c — Aglycated haemoglobin — measured to test the overall sugar levels to near normal levels.

“This is clinical validation of the potential to stably lower blood sugars to near normal levels with a safe vaccine, even in patients with longstanding disease,” said Denise Faustman, director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Immunobiology Laboratory, US.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

The study, published in the journal npj Vaccine, also reported that the effects of BCG vaccine on blood sugar control appear to depend on a totally novel metabolic mechanism that increases cellular consumption of glucose.

The team analysed data from 282 human study participants — 52 with Type-1 diabetes who participated in the BCG clinical trials and 230 who contributed blood samples for mechanistic studies.

The results showed that the HbA1c levels of those receiving BCG had dropped by more than 10 per cent in three years after treatment and by more than 18 per cent in four years.

Also Read: Study: Plant-based Diets Can Help Diabetes Patients

The study showed that BCG vaccination induces epigenetic reprogramming at the chromatin architecture level and functional alterations indicative of a permanent change in immunity.

Thus, the clinical effects and the proposed mechanism add to the emerging consensus that the BCG vaccine can have a lasting and valuable impact on the immune system, the researchers said. (IANS)

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Know About the 2 Different Conditions in Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is two different conditions, says a recent study

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Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying them. Pixabay

Researchers have revealed that children under the age of seven, who are diagnosed with with Type 1 diabetes have a different form of the condition compared with those diagnosed aged 13 or above.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying them. This is a health news. This means they no longer regulate blood sugar levels effectively and people affected by the condition must inject insulin several times a day to do this job, the researchers said.

They have suggested new names for the two distinct endotypes: Type 1 Diabetes Endotype 1 (T1DE1) for that diagnosed in the youngest children, and Type 1 Diabetes Endotype 2 (T1DE2) for those who are older at diagnosis.

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Researchers also studied whether the differences seen in the pancreas are mirrored in the blood of people diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at increasing ages. Pixabay

“We’re extremely excited to find evidence that type 1 diabetes is two separate conditions: T1DE1 and T1DE 2. The significance of this could be enormous in helping us to understand what causes the illness, and in unlocking avenues to prevent future generations of children from getting type 1 diabetes,” said study researcher Noel Morgan, Professor at the University of Exeter in the UK. “It might also lead to new treatments, if we can find ways to reactivate dormant insulin-producing cells in the older age group,” Morgan added.

The study, published in the journal Diabetologia, showed that children who were diagnosed under 7 years old do not process insulin properly and the cells that make it are quickly destroyed. Surprisingly, those who are older at diagnosis (aged 13 or over) often continue to produce normal insulin; findings which reignite important questions about whether these “dormant” insulin-producing cells could be reinvigorated to work more effectively.

The research team reached their conclusions by analysing two bioresources including the unique Exeter pancreatic biobank comprising more than 130 samples, many of which come from children and young people who died soon after being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. They also studied whether the differences seen in the pancreas are mirrored in the blood of people diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at increasing ages.

Also Read- Occidental Heroes, Oriental Lands. (Part Two).

“Our research could have a significant impact on current emerging therapies for type 1,” said study researcher Sarah Richardson. “We’re seeing a lot of promise in immunotherapies which can slow disease progression, but so far that hasn’t translated into effective new treatments. It could be that we need to focus on the use of different therapies in each age group, for these to be effective,” Richardson added. (IANS)

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Researchers Find Drug to Delay Type-1 Diabetes by Two Years

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine

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According to the researchers, these novel findings may provide the basis for new therapies for patients who have heart disease complicated by diabetes. Pixabay

In a first, researchers have found that a treatment affecting the immune system effectively slowed the progression to clinical Type-1 diabetes in high risk individuals by two years or more.

“The results have important implications for people, particularly youth, who have relatives with the disease, as these individuals may be at high risk and benefit from early screening and treatment,” said Lisa Spain, Project Scientist from US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

The study, involving treatment with an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (teplizumab), was conducted by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an international collaboration aimed at discovering ways to delay or prevent Type-1 diabetes.

Participants were randomly assigned to either the treatment group, which received a 14-day course of teplizumab, or the control group, which received a placebo.

All participants received glucose tolerance tests regularly until the study was completed, or until they developed clinical Type-1 diabetes – whichever came first.

During the trial, 72 per cent of the people in the control group developed clinical diabetes, compared to only 43 per cent of the teplizumab group.

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“Although Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes in parents are well-established risk factors for diabetes, we show that gestational diabetes mellitus may be a risk indicator for diabetes in the mother’s children before age 22,” . Pixabay

The median time for people in the control group to develop clinical diabetes was just over 24 months, while those who developed clinical diabetes in the treatment group had a median time of 48 months before progressing to diagnosis.

“The difference in outcomes was striking. This discovery is the first evidence we’ve seen that clinical Type-1 diabetes can be delayed with early preventive treatment,” Spain added.

Type-1 diabetes develops when the immune system’s T cells mistakenly destroy the body’s own insulin-producing beta cells.

Also Read- Cutting Sodium Intake May Prevent 94 Million Premature Deaths From CVD

Insulin is needed to convert glucose into energy. Teplizumab targets T cells to lessen the destruction of beta cells.

The effects of the drug were greatest in the first year after it was given, said the study published online in The New England Journal of Medicine. (IANS)

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Kids of Mothers With Type-1 Diabetes at Risk of Being Overweight

Children of mothers with Type-1 diabetes had a significantly higher body mass index than children from mothers without diabetes

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The findings, published in the journal Diabetologia, were based on data from nearly 2,800 children with a first-degree relative with Type-1 diabetes.
New shoe insole could treat diabetic foot ulcers. Pixabay

Children of mothers with Type-1 diabetes are at significantly higher risk of being overweight and of exhibiting insulin resistance, new research has found.

“Our study shows that children of mothers with Type-1 diabetes are not only at significantly higher risk of having the condition itself, but are also at greater risk of being overweight and developing insulin resistance,” said one of the researchers Anette-Gabriele Ziegler from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich-Neuherberg.

“We would therefore advise that paediatricians should bear this correlation in mind, so that they can react on early warning signs in such children,” Ziegler added.

The findings, published in the journal Diabetologia, were based on data from nearly 2,800 children with a first-degree relative with Type-1 diabetes.

Representational image.
Representational image. Pixabay

“Their metabolic status and body weight were tracked up to the age of 18,” said lead author Anitha Pitchika from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen.

Type-1 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder in childhood. It was already known that children of parents with Type-1 diabetes are at much higher risk of developing the disease than the rest of the population.

Also Read: Diabetes? Living Near Woods May Cut Risk of Elevated Blood Sugar

“Moreover, there were also sporadic indications from previous studies that children of mothers with Type-1 diabetes are also at increased risk of having metabolic syndrome, as the intermittent high blood glucose levels in the uterus appear to have long-term effects on the child’s metabolism and body weight,” explained Andreas Beyerlein from Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen.

In this study, the researchers investigated this hypothesis with a large dataset and found that children of mothers with Type-1 diabetes had a significantly higher body mass index than children from mothers without diabetes. (IANS)