Monday September 24, 2018

Test for Zika more than once during pregnancy: Study

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Test for Zika more than once during pregnancy: Study
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New York, November 2,2017:  Women should be tested for the Zika virus more than once during pregnancy as the pathogen can be intermittently present in the urine for up to seven months, researchers suggested.

The study showed that the test could again be positive for the Zika virus even after the viral load had disappeared in previous tests.

 The virus can be detected in a patient’s urine for as long as seven months.

“These results suggest the virus continues replicating during pregnancy, in the foetus or the placenta, which must serve as a reservoir for the pathogen,” said Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira, Professor at the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) in Brazil.

“However, viral load in the mother’s fluids is intermittent and very low, almost at the detection threshold,” Nogueira added, in the paper appearing in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Molecular tests to detect Zika virus enable identification of the pathogen’s genetic material in body fluids such as blood, urine, semen and saliva during the acute phase of infection.

These tests have also been used routinely in prenatal checkups for pregnant women with symptoms of the disease.

According to Nogueira, if the result of a molecular test is negative, it should ideally be repeated at least twice at intervals of no less than a week.

“We typically test urine samples because they are easier to obtain and because the blood viral load is lower and disappears faster,” he said.

For the study, the team included women in different stages of pregnancy (four weeks to 38 weeks).

Some women had babies with complications — such as hearing loss and brain cyst — that were probably caused by Zika.

However, the researchers were unable to establish a correlation between the number of times the virus was detected in the mother and the occurrence of an adverse outcome.(IANS)

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Researchers found a new Drug to Reduce Alcohol Addiction in Teenagers

The drug is (+)-Naltrexone can reduce the drinking habit in teenagers.

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A new drug can reduce Alcohol addiction in teenagers
A new drug can reduce Alcohol addiction in teenagers. Pixabay
  • Researchers have found a new drug that may eventually help to reduce alcohol addiction in adults who used to binge during their adolescent years.

A new drug found which can reduce Alcohol addiction in teenagers

“During our teen years, the brain is still in a relatively immature state. Binge drinking worsens this situation, as alcohol undermines the normal developmental processes that affect how our brain matures,” said lead author Jon Jacobsen, a Ph.D. student at the University of Adelaide, Australia.

“Therefore, when an adolescent who has been binge drinking becomes an adult, they’re often left with an immature brain, which assists in the development of alcohol dependence,” Jacobsen added.

For the study, published in the Journal Neuropharmacology, researchers observed that adolescent mice involved in binge drinking behavior developed an increased sensitivity to alcohol as adults and engaged in further binge drinking.

The researchers were able to prevent some of these detrimental behaviors observed in adulthood, by giving mice a drug that blocks a specific response from the immune system in the brain.

The drug is (+)-Naltrexone, known to block the immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).

“This drug effectively switched off the impulse in mice to binge drink. The mice were given this drug still sought out alcohol, but their level of drinking was greatly reduced,” says senior author Professor Mark Hutchinson, Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics at the University of Adelaide.

“We’re excited by the finding that we can potentially block binge drinking in an adult after they have experienced such behavior during adolescence, by stopping the activation of the brain’s immune system. It’s the first time this has been shown and gives us hope that our work has implications for the eventual treatment of alcohol addiction in adults,” Hutchinson noted.(IANS)

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