Monday July 22, 2019

Health Experts Claim, Tuberculosis Can Reduce Chances Of Pregnancy

"It is also important that people thwart the factors that contribute to TB by making their living conditions more hygienic, improving immunity, and having better access to nutrition,"

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To combat the disease, it is essential that diagnostic facilities reach the farthest areas and people made aware of the consequences of contracting TB, said Rajkumar, Consultant Internal Medicine at New Delhi-based Indian Spinal Injuries Centre. Pixabay

Tuberculosis (TB) bacterium primarily affects the lungs, but can also spread and cause secondary infections to the uterus and even the fallopian tubes, which can reduce chances of pregnancy, health experts warned ahead of the World Tuberculosis Day that falls on March 24.

Usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria, TB is the top infectious killer worldwide, claiming around 4,400 lives a day.

When the bacteria attacks the uterus, it causes uterine tuberculosis (also known as pelvic TB) which mostly affects women during the child-bearing period and is usually diagnosed during an infertility check-up.

pregnancy
“Also, with medication, women can be helped to conceive through ART, either IVF of or IUI, where intervention can be done to repair the after-effects.” Pixabay

“Women are more often affected than males and due to uterine tuberculosis, two out of 10 females are unable to bear a child,” Shweta Goswami, Infertility Specialist at Jaypee Hospital in Noida, told IANS.

“In extreme cases, the uterine lining become so thin that it is unable to bear an implantation resulting in miscarriage,” she added.

Mtb bacteria is transported by blood to other organs including reproductive organs and causes infection in fallopian tubes, uterus or in endometrial lining.

“Tuberculosis has the ability to severely damage the fallopian tubes, if not treated at the initial stage.. it can further lead to serious health complications and also result in infertility,” Goswami said.

Symptoms of TB in uterus include irregular menstruation, pelvic pain, continuous discharge which is stained with blood or without blood with a foul smell and bleeding after intercourse.

A 2018 study by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) showed that over 50 per cent of female patients in India coming for IVF procedure have been reported to have genital TB.

The prevalence of genital TB among Indian women has increased from 19 per cent in 2011 to 30 per cent in 2015.

In over 95 per cent of the cases, the infection was found to affect the fallopian tubes, in 50 per cent the endometrium and 30 per cent the ovaries.

Moreover, nearly 75 per cent of women with genital TB were found to be infertile, and 50-60 per cent of women with infertility were found to have genital TB, the report stated.

“Treating uterine TB should be of the utmost importance as soon as it is detected. There is social stigma attached with TB which makes it difficult for people to come openly and talk about it,” said Shobha Gupta, Medical Director and IVF Specialist from Mother’s Lap IVF Centre, New Delhi.

There are combined tests which are used to investigate whether a person is suffering from TB which are a combination of AFB smear, culture and PCR for tuberculosis.

TB
When the bacteria attacks the uterus, it causes uterine tuberculosis (also known as pelvic TB) which mostly affects women during the child-bearing period and is usually diagnosed during an infertility check-up. Pixabay

“Also, with medication, women can be helped to conceive through ART, either IVF of or IUI, where intervention can be done to repair the after-effects,” Gupta noted.

According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) ‘Global Tuberculosis Report 2018’, India accounted for 27 per cent of the 10 million people, who had developed TB in 2017, besides making up 32 per cent of global TB deaths among HIV-negative people and 27 per cent of combined TB deaths.

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To combat the disease, it is essential that diagnostic facilities reach the farthest areas and people made aware of the consequences of contracting TB, said Rajkumar, Consultant Internal Medicine at New Delhi-based Indian Spinal Injuries Centre.

“It is also important that people thwart the factors that contribute to TB by making their living conditions more hygienic, improving immunity, and having better access to nutrition,” he added. (IANS)

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Consuming High- Fibre Diet may Reduce Risk of Preeclampsia During Pregnancy

Pregnancy outcomes and infant immunity are linked to gut bacteria

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The mother's gut bacteria and diet appear to be crucial to promoting healthy pregnancy. Pixabay

Ladies, please take note. Consuming a high-fibre diet may reduce the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy, researchers have found.

“Simple recommendation to ‘eat real food, mostly plants and not too much’ might be the most effective primary prevention strategy for some of the most serious conditions of our time.

“The mother’s gut bacteria and diet appear to be crucial to promoting healthy pregnancy,” said study lead author Ralph Nanan, Professor at the University of Sydney.

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, showed that pregnancy outcomes and infant immunity are linked to gut bacteria.

Fibre, Diet, Pregnancy
Ladies, please take note. Pixabay

Plant-based fibre is broken down in the gut by bacteria into factors that influence the immune system. The research team investigated the role of these metabolic products of gut bacteria during pregnancy.

The researchers found that in humans, reduced levels of acetate, which is mainly produced by fibre fermentation in the gut, is associated with the common and serious pregnancy-related condition preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia occurs in up to 10 per cent of pregnancies and is characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine and severe swelling in the mother’s body.

It also interferes with the child’s immune development whilst in the womb, with some evidence suggesting a link to higher rates of allergies and autoimmune diseases later in life.

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The study found that preeclampsia affected the development of an important foetal immune organ – the thymus – which sits just behind the breastbone.

Foetuses in preeclamptic pregnancies were found to have a much smaller thymus than children from healthy pregnancies.

The cells the thymus normally generates — called ‘T’ cells, and specifically those associated with the prevention of allergies and autoimmune conditions such as diabetes — also remained lower in infants after preeclampsia, even four years after delivery.

Fiber, Diet, Pregnancy
Consuming a high-fibre diet may reduce the risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy, researchers have found. Pixabay

The mechanisms of acetate on the developing foetal immune system were further examined in separate experiments involving mice that showed acetate was central in driving foetal thymus and ‘T’ cell development.

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The results showed that promoting specific metabolic products of gut bacteria during pregnancy might be an effective way to maintain a healthy pregnancy and to prevent allergies and autoimmune conditions later in life. (IANS)