Thursday January 17, 2019

Research: Two-headed Arrow Efficient For Killing The Ovarian Cancer

Further, the approach also avoids toxicity issues that have plagued previous antibody therapies

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Breast Cancer
Nano technology offers hope for better cancer testing. Pixabay

Researchers, led by an Indian origin, have developed a two fisted, antibody approach that can effectively destroy ovarian cancer — the deadliest gynecological disease — and could also be utilised to kill breast, prostate and other solid tumours.

According to Jogender Tushir-Singh from the University of Virginia’s (UVA), a major problem with immune therapies for ovarian cancer is that the immune cells intended to kill the cancer cells could not infiltrate the solid tumour bed effectively.

So he engineered an antibody that he likens to a “two-headed arrow”.

One head of this dual pronged “arrow” strikes what is known as the death receptor on the cancer cells, forcing them to die, while the other head strikes a receptor known as FOLR1, a well established marker that suggests a poor prognosis.

“There are a lot of efforts in terms of cancer immune therapy, but the success of these are really limited in solid tumours,” Tushir-Singh said.

“I found that one of the problems is with the solid tumour microenvironment.

Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

“The microenvironment is highly hypoxic, anergic and, particularly in the case of ovarian cancer, some unusually large receptors form a protective fence around tumour cells, so even if the immune cells reach there, there are many obstacles,” he explained.

The newly engineered antibodies are over 100 times more effective at killing cancer cells than the antibodies that have made it to clinical trials.

Further, the approach also avoids toxicity issues that have plagued previous antibody therapies.

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“Liver toxicity has been the biggest problem for a lot of antibodies — they are taken out of the blood too fast and accumulate where not needed,” Tushir-Singh said.

“But by providing a good home for the antibodies in the tumour, we are keeping these antibodies away from the liver,” he noted. (IANS)

Next Story

Risk Of Suicide Quadruples With Cancer: Study

The results could be used to help identify patients who may be at a higher risk for suicide and help health care providers tailor their treatments accordingly.

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A Family In Delhi Commits Suicide To Thank God: Police Reports
While the risk of suicide decreases five years after a diagnosis, the risk remains high for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer.

People with cancer are over four times more likely to commit suicide than people without the deadly disease, finds a study.

According to researchers from the Penn State Cancer Institute in Pennsylvania, while a lot of progress has been made in treating cancer, not as much research has been put into how cancer affects patients mentally and emotionally.

“Even though cancer is one of the leading causes of death, most cancer patients do not die from cancer, the patients usually die of another cause,” said Nicholas Zaorsky, radiation oncologist at the Penn State Cancer Institute.

“There are multiple competing risks for death, and one of them is suicide. Distress and depression can arise from cancer diagnosis, treatment, financial stress, and other causes. Ultimately, distress and depression may lead to suicide. Our goal was to quantify the risk of suicide among cancer patients,” he added.

Breast Cancer
Chemists develop unique disease-fighting ‘nano-grenades’. VOA

The study, published in the Nature Communications journal, the team compared the risk of suicide in eight million patients who had been diagnosed with cancer and those without.

They found that among people with cancer, males, patients who were diagnosed at a younger age, patients with lung, head, neck and testicular cancer, and lymphomas were more likely to commit suicide.

While the risk of suicide decreases five years after a diagnosis, the risk remains high for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer.

“Treatments for some cancers — like leukemia and testicular cancer among adolescents and young adults, for example — can decrease a patient’s fertility, and that seems to be one of the risks for suicide in the long term,” Zaorsky said.

Also Read: Here’s What Causes Cancer in Children

“In contrast, elderly patients who are diagnosed with lung, prostate and head and neck cancers, are at an increased risk of suicide for the remainder of their life.”

The results could be used to help identify patients who may be at a higher risk for suicide and help health care providers tailor their treatments accordingly. (IANS)