Friday November 16, 2018

Research: Two-headed Arrow Efficient For Killing The Ovarian Cancer

Further, the approach also avoids toxicity issues that have plagued previous antibody therapies

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Breast Cancer
Early rising women at lower risk of breast cancer: Study. Pixabay
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Researchers, led by an Indian origin, have developed a two fisted, antibody approach that can effectively destroy ovarian cancer — the deadliest gynecological disease — and could also be utilised to kill breast, prostate and other solid tumours.

According to Jogender Tushir-Singh from the University of Virginia’s (UVA), a major problem with immune therapies for ovarian cancer is that the immune cells intended to kill the cancer cells could not infiltrate the solid tumour bed effectively.

So he engineered an antibody that he likens to a “two-headed arrow”.

One head of this dual pronged “arrow” strikes what is known as the death receptor on the cancer cells, forcing them to die, while the other head strikes a receptor known as FOLR1, a well established marker that suggests a poor prognosis.

“There are a lot of efforts in terms of cancer immune therapy, but the success of these are really limited in solid tumours,” Tushir-Singh said.

“I found that one of the problems is with the solid tumour microenvironment.

Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

“The microenvironment is highly hypoxic, anergic and, particularly in the case of ovarian cancer, some unusually large receptors form a protective fence around tumour cells, so even if the immune cells reach there, there are many obstacles,” he explained.

The newly engineered antibodies are over 100 times more effective at killing cancer cells than the antibodies that have made it to clinical trials.

Further, the approach also avoids toxicity issues that have plagued previous antibody therapies.

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“Liver toxicity has been the biggest problem for a lot of antibodies — they are taken out of the blood too fast and accumulate where not needed,” Tushir-Singh said.

“But by providing a good home for the antibodies in the tumour, we are keeping these antibodies away from the liver,” he noted. (IANS)

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High Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation Increase Risk of Cancer

Interestingly, the team found that rats exposed to whole body RFR lived longer than rats unexposed to any radiation

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High exposure to radio frequency radiation linked to cancer. Pixabay

Exposure to high levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) — used in 2G and 3G cell phones — can increase the risk of cancer tumours in the heart, brain and adrenal gland, researchers have warned.

The study, led by the US National Institutes of Health’s National Toxicology Programme (NTP), looked at the effects of exposing rodents to extremely high levels of radiofrequency throughout the entire body.

While high levels of RFR caused cancerous tumours in the heart (found very rarely in humans), brain and adrenal gland, of male rats, the findings on female rats were ambiguous.

“The exposures used in the studies cannot be compared directly to the exposure that humans experience when using a cell phone. In our studies, rats and mice received radio frequency radiation across their whole bodies,” John Bucher, researcher from the NTP, said in a statement.

“By contrast, people are mostly exposed in specific local tissues close to where they hold the phone,” Bucher added.

For the study, the team housed the animals in chambers specifically designed for the study.

Exposure to RFR began in the womb for rats and at 5 to 6 weeks old for mice, and continued for up to two years, or most of their natural lifetime.

Breast Cancer
Cancer ribbon. Pixabay

However, the RFR exposure was intermittent — 10 minutes on and 10 minutes off — totalling about nine hours each day.

In addition, the RFR levels ranged from 1.5-6 watts per kilogram in rats, and 2.5-10 watts per kilogram in mice.

“We believe that the link between radio frequency radiation and tumours in male rats is real,” Bucher noted.

Interestingly, the team found that rats exposed to whole body RFR lived longer than rats unexposed to any radiation.

“This may be explained by an observed decrease in chronic kidney problems that are often the cause of death in older rats,” the researchers noted.

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According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while animal studies contribute to discussions on the topic, “this study was not designed to test the safety of cell phone use in humans, so we cannot draw conclusions about the risks of cell phone use from it.”

Since the exposure levels and durations in the studies were greater than what people experience, “we agree that these findings should not be applied to human cell phone usage”, the FDA said on Thursday. (IANS)