The United States said Saturday that it was determined to address “legitimate concerns” of all sides in the conflict in Afghanistan to achieve peace.
Zalmay Khalilzad, U.S. special envoy for Afghan reconciliation, tweeted the pledgefrom neighboring Pakistan, where officials are trying to arrange and host the next round of talks with representatives of the Afghan Taliban.
The insurgent group has been reluctant to send its envoys to the dialogue since its last meeting with Khalilzad’s team in the United Arab Emirates a month ago. Representatives from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the host country also attended that meeting.
The Taliban has since accused the U.S. team of backing away from holding discussions on key insurgent demands for all American and NATO troops to leave the country to allow Afghans to resolve political differences themselves.
Washington has been pushing the Taliban to open direct talks with the Afghan government, but insurgents have refused to do so, rejecting Kabul as an “American puppet.”
“To achieve peace, we are ready to address legitimate concerns of all Afghan sides in a process that ensures Afghan independence and sovereignty, and accounts for legitimate interests of regional states,” Khalilzad said.
He called for insurgents to agree to a cease-fire, and warned that U.S. troops would hit back if they came under attack from the Taliban.
“Urgent that fighting end. But pursuing peace still means we fight as needed,” the U.S. envoy underscored in his messages via Twitter.
Pakistan promotes dialogue
Pakistan said it was trying to facilitate U.S.-Taliban discussions, hoping the dialogue would lead to an intra-Afghan peace process. Islamabad has long been accused of sheltering and covertly helping Taliban rebels orchestrate attacks inside Afghanistan. Pakistani leaders reject the charges.
“The solution to the Afghan issue is not possible without intra-Afghan dialogue, and Pakistan considers it vital for the restoration of peace in the entire region,” Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi told local media Saturday.
Washington opened direct peace talks with the Taliban last summer to promote a political settlement to the war. Since then, media reports have said U.S. President Donald Trump is considering a plan to pull out nearly half of the 14,000 American troops stationed in Afghanistan in the coming weeks.
The reported plans have worried critics, who say the move will encourage the Taliban to continue its military campaign rather than negotiate a political settlement to the 17-year-old war. (VOA)
Back in the day, when the “grandmas and grandpas” of the Native American Church (NAC) needed peyote, they would make a 2,000-kilometer pilgrimage from the reservations of South Dakota to the tiny town of Mirando City, Texas, close to the U.S. border with Mexico. That’s where they could find Amada Cardenas, a Mexican-American woman who at the time was the only peyote dealer in Texas.
Cardenas was not Native American, nor was she a member of the NAC. But she understood how sacred the medicine was to church members and defended its use as a religious sacrament to those who sought to ban it.
“After Amada’s passing, the peyote distribution system lost heart and seemed to be about monetary compensation,” said Iron Rope, former chairman of the Native American Church of North America (NACNA) and today chairman of the NAC of South Dakota. He is concerned that the remaining three or four peyote dealers in Texas — all non-Native — don’t give “the medicine” the reverence they should.
“They don’t make prayerful offerings when they harvest,” Iron Rope said. “We’ve heard reports about intoxicated harvesters. Sometimes, the medicine that comes to us was mushy or small, and the harvesting technique was not one that would allow regrowth.”
Careless and sometimes illegal harvesting, along with increased land and resource development in Texas, has led to a decline in peyote’s quality and availability. Prices have gone up, and church members worry the cactus, now listed as a vulnerable species, could become endangered.
In 2013, NACNA began researching ways to conserve peyote and its natural habitat.
Peyote, or Lophophora williamsii, is a succulent that contains psychoactive alkaloids and only grows in southern Texas and a handful of states in northern Mexico.
Indigenous people have used it ceremonially and medicinally for centuries, as noted by 16th century Spanish missionaries, who condemned it as an evil. Peyote use persisted, however, and by the late 1800s, had spread to present-day Oklahoma, where tribes adapted it to suit their individual spiritual traditions.
In the face of government efforts to ban peyote, peyotists in the early 20th century sought to incorporate as a formal religion. In 1918, an intertribal group established the NAC, which has evolved to include tens of thousands of members across dozens of tribal nations. Members view the church as an important component of healing from historic trauma and reconnecting to tradition.
Peyote was banned in the United States in 1970, but the law was later amended to allow peyote to be used in “bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native American Church.”
Texas allows several peyoteros registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency to harvest and sell peyote, but only to card-carrying NAC members with proven Native American ancestry.
‘A beautiful ceremony’
Unlike other religious denominations, said Iron Rope, the NAC is not a unified theology.
“Different variations of the ceremony have come into play,” he said. “There are Christian aspects to the NAC today and traditional aspects, as well.”
Wynema Morris, a member of the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska and an NAC member, grew up with an understanding of the sacredness of peyote and the religious etiquette surrounding its use.
“It was my own grandfather, Samuel Thomas Gilpin, who actually received peyote early on from the Winnebagos, a neighboring tribe, and passed it on to his sons, my uncles,” she said.
Peyote is much misunderstood and maligned, she said, viewed by many anthropologists through the lens of colonial prejudice.
“I don’t like their use of the word ‘hallucinations,’” she said. “You don’t use peyote to get high. You use it to pray and communicate with God — the same God everyone else talks to.”
She described all-night services of prayer, song and meditation.
“The ceremony is beautiful,” she said. “The extraordinary and the phenomenon are not necessarily unexpected, but they are definitely not precluded.”
In 2013, NACNA began looking at ways to conserve and sustain peyote for future generations of indigenous Americans, Mexicans and Canadians.
“It was our intent to eventually have our own land and be able to have our own peyote dealer who could understand our concerns as the Native American Church,” said Iron Rope.
In 2017, NACNA and partner organizations formally launched the Indigenous Peyote Conservation Initiative (IPCI). With funding from the Riverstyx Foundation, a nonprofit that supports research of medicinal uses of psychoactive plants, IPCI purchased 245 hectares (605 acres) of land in Thompsonville, Texas, to serve as “Sacred Peyote Gardens.”