Created between the 17th and 19th centuries for the Rajput and Pahari courts of north India, a selection of 30 paintings depicting the Ramayana will go on a year-long exhibition at The Met, America’s prestigious museum.
The upcoming exhibition will begin on August 10 at its South Asian Exhibition Gallery here. Its focus will be on one of the major epic narratives of Indian and South Asian literature, the Ramayana, composed by the Sanskrit poet Valmiki around the 5th century BC.
Drawn largely from The Met’s collection, the show titled “Sita and Rama: The Ramayana in Indian Painting” will showcase 30 paintings that narrate the heroic and adventurous tale of Rama’s rescue of his wife.
The paintings and textiles that will be on view capture the collective visual imagination of court artists in their efforts to give form to the 2,500-year-old Sanskrit narrative, which consists of more than 24,000 verses. Highlights of the exhibition include a rare 19th century painting titled Tantric Form of Monkey God Hanuman, being displayed for the first time.
Other highlights include an early 19th century masterpiece “Rama, Sita and Lakshmana Begin their Life in the Forest” that represents the sophisticated late Pahari painting tradition; a rare late 18th century textile piece, “The Combat of Rama and Ravenna”; and an important group of six paintings from “The Shangri Ramayana” series dating from 1690 to 1710.
The philosophical dimension of Ramayana finds visual expression in these images, particularly its interest in the themes of morality, kingship and Rama’s status as a divine manifestation or ‘avatar’ of Hindu deity Vishnu. The exhibition is organised by Kurt Behrendt, Associate Curator in the Department of Asian Art of The Met. The exhibition will conclude in August 2020. (IANS)
Once Lord Hanuman assumed a very rare form of Panch-Mukhi Hanuman to kill the demon Ahiravan
Hanuman was kind of a naughty kid in his childhood and he often used to tease the meditating sages in the forests
Agni blessed Lord Hanuman, Saying, “Fire will never burn you
Lord Hanuman was a passionate devotee of Lord Rama and one of the crucial characters in the various versions of the epic Ramayana found in the Indian subcontinent. The glorious tales of Lord Hanuman is also mentioned in several other texts, such as the Mahabharata, the Puranas, the Buddhist and Sikh texts.
As per several other texts, Lord Hanuman is also presented as an incarnation of Shiva. Hanuman is the son of Anjana and Kesari. He is also taken as the son of the wind-god Vayu, who according to several stories played a role in his birth.
The Hanuman Jayanti is also known as Hanuman Janam-Utsav. Hanuman Jayanti is a Hindu religious festival that celebrates the birth of Lord Sri Hanuman, who is immensely venerated throughout India and Nepal.
Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated on different days in different parts of India. In many states, the festival is observed either in the day of Chaitra Pournimaa or in the month of Vaishakha. In a few states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated in the Hindu month of Margazhi.
The Hanuman Chalisa literally means forty Chaupais (chapter) on Lord Hanuman. It is a Hindu devotional hymn addressed to Lord Hanuman.
Traditionally, it was believed that Hanuman Chalisa was authored by 16th-century poet Tulsidas in the Awadhi language and is his best-known text apart from the Ramcharitmanas.
The word “Chalisa” is derived from “Chalis”, which means the number forty in Hindi. So does the Hanuman Chalisa has 40 verses.
Here, we have compiled some interesting facts about Lord Hanuman which will surely amaze you.
Lord Hanuman’s battle with Lord Rama
The sage Vishwamithra ordered Lord Rama to kill Yayati. Sensing the gravity of the situation, Yayathi pleaded Lord Hanuman for help. The Yayati was promised By Hanuman that he would save Yayati from any kind of danger.
In the battlefield, Lord Hanuman did not use any weapon. Hanuman stood chanting Rama’s name and the arrows from Lord Rama’s bow did not have any effect on him
Finally, Lord Rama had to give up and sage Vishwamithra relieved Rama of his word seeing the courage of Hanuman.
2. Hanuman’s hunger saga
Once Lord Hanuman visited Sita Mata in sage Valmiki’s cottage and expressed his desire to eat some food cooked by Sita. Sita Mata started cooking many dishes and started serving Hanuman.
But Hanuman’s hunger was unquenchable and the entire rations of the house were coming to an end and finally, Sita Mata had to pray Lord Rama. Then Lord Hanuman suggested Sita Mata serve a morsel with a Tulsi Leaf and then his hunger was finally satisfied.
Once Lord Hanuman assumed a very rare form of Panch-Mukhi Hanuman to kill the demon Ahiravan. Ahiravan was the younger brother of Ravan, who kidnapped Ram and Lakshman and took them to the Netherworld. The only way to kill Ahiravan was to extinguish 5 lamps in 5 different directions, which Lord Hanuman did with Panch-Mukhi form.
The other five faces of Hanuman, apart from himself are that of Narasimha, Garuda, Varaha and Hayagriva.
4. Demise of Rama
Lord Ram would have lived more only if Lord Hanuman wouldn’t have allowed Yama to enter Ayodhya to claim Ram.
Lord Ram diverted Hanuman’s attention by dropping his ring through a crack in the floor and asked Hanuman to fetch it back for him. Lord Hanuman immediately reached the land of serpents and asked their King for Ram’s ring and the king showed Hanuman a vault filled with rings all of which were Ram’s.
5. The curse on Hanuman
Hanuman was kind of a naughty kid in his childhood and he often used to tease the meditating sages in the forests. Finding Lord Hanuman’s unbearable acts, but realizing that he was but a child, the sages placed a mild curse on him by which he became unable to remember his own ability unless reminded by another person.
The curse of the sages is featured in Kishkindha Kanda and Sundara Kanda when Jambavantha reminds Hanuman of his abilities and encourages him to go and find Sita.
6. God’s blessing to Hanuman
After the birth of Lord Hanuman, Varuna blessed Lord Hanuman with a boon that he would always be protected from water and Agni blessed him, Saying, “Fire will never burn you.” Surya blessed him with two siddhis of yoga namely “Laghima” and “Garima”(“Laghima” could help him to attain the smallest form and with “Garima” the biggest form of life).
Vayu showered Lord Hanuman with more speed than he himself had and Yama (the God of Death) blessed him with a healthy life.
Hanuman is also appraised to be the brother of Bhima as they had the same father, Vayu. During the Pandavas’ exile, Hanuman masked as a weak and aged monkey to Bhima in order to subdue his arrogance.
Hanuman put his tail by blocking Bhima’s way. Bhima, unaware of his identity, tells him to move it out of the way but was refused by Lord Hanuman. Bhima wasn’t able to move the tail by himself, despite his great strength.
8. Mahabharata’s relevance
During the illustrious battle of Kurukshetra, Arjuna made his way into the battlefield with a flag displaying Hanuman on his chariot.
Earlier, after one of the encounters between Hanuman and Arjuna, Hanuman appeared as a small talking monkey before Arjuna at Rameshwaram, where Rama had built a bridge to cross over to Lanka.
Hanuman challenged Arjuna to build such a bridge alone when Lord Hanuman found out that Arjuna’s was wondering aloud at Rama’s taking the help of monkeys rather than building a bridge of arrows.
There are 8 immortals in Hindu religion who are believed to remain alive through kali yoga. Until a person attains Moksha, their life cycle is incomplete and Samsara of life and death continues. There is no escape to this fate.
New Delhi, September 24, 2017: Hinduism is the oldest known religion in the world. The way of life and spirituality in Hinduism is followed by certain rules, called Hindu dharma. Widely practiced in South Asia, Hinduism dates back to 4000 BCE to 1500 BCE in context to pre-Vedic religions and Vedic period.
Hinduism observes a comprehensive range of philosophies, from where the Hindu text are themed into four Purusarthas, Dharma (duties), Artha (work/prosperity), Kama (desires), and Moksha (freedom/salvation). These are the important part of fulfilling and happy life that makes a complete cycle of living.
Until a person attains Moksha, their life cycle is incomplete, and Samsara of life and death continues. There is no escape to this fate, and it is believed in Hindu Dharma that 8 personalities are in the same infinity cycle of Samsara. The eight immortals or Astha Chiranjeevi as they are known stands the loop Chiram (Long) and Jivee (Lived).
The 8 immortals in Hindu religion who are believed to remain alive through kali yoga
Maha Rishi Markandeya
One of the devotees of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu, Rishi Markandeya comes from the Bhrigu, a clan of sages. The legend behind speaks of the great devotion of Markandeya towards Shiva to save himself from the god of death, Yama.
Rishi Mrikandu and his wife Marudmati worshipped Lord Shiva and requested from him the boon with a son. However, the boon came up to them two options, either their son will have a short lifespan or the son will have low intelligence. Mrikandu chose the first option and was blessed with Markandeya, who was destined to die at 16. The destiny cannot be escaped, and so the time came.
Markandeya knew about his fate, and on the day of his death, he started to worship Lord Shiva near the Shivalingam (the symbolic statue that represents Lord Shiva). The devotion and prayers were so powerful that the messenger of death God Yama was unable to take his life. Hearing this, Yama appeared himself to take away Markandeya’s life. He started to create a trap around the teenage sage, but mistakenly it grounded upon the Shivalingam. Furious Shiva emerged from the Shivalingam and a battle started between them on point of death. Yama couldn’t handle the rage of Shiva and thus resulted in losing it and sparing the life of Markandeya. Also, Shiva revived Yama to give the boy a boon of immortality.
This legend made Maha Rishi Markandeya be one of the 8 immortals in Hindu religion.
Asura King Mahabali
The great-grandson of Hiranyakshipu, the grandson of Prahlada and son of Virochana, Mahabali.
The most beloved king in Kerela, Mahabali ruled his kingdom with prosperity and happiness. His success as a king led Gods to be cautious and bring him demise by Vamana, Vishnu avatar. Vamana asked Mahabali for 3 steps of land at the time of Ashwamedha Yoga, a Hindu rite that Bali performed to maintain dominance over three worlds. Bali agreed to it and granted Vamana the boon. Vishnu avatar Vamana covered the earth and the heaven with his two steps and asked Bali now that you don’t have anything left how will you fulfill my grant. Mahabali offered Vamana his head as a place his last step, which compelled Bali to go underworld.
Vamana got pleased with his devotions and blesses Bali to be the Indra during the period of Manu, known as Savarni. Bali’s devotion, dharma, and polite words mesmerized Lord Vishnu and he was granted with a boon of visiting the earth once a year. Onam festival in Kerala is celebrated to welcome Asur King Mahabali in this regards. He is also one of the 8 immortals in Hindu Religion.
Born in Brahmin family, Parashurama was a warrior. Unlike other Brahmins, he was very temperamental and was also known to all as the sixth avatar of Lord Vishnu. Parashurama, the Brahmin-Kshatriya has many personas of being Kshatriya like warfare, valor, and aggression.
He is a martial Shraman ascetic. However, it is believed that he still lives on earth and is one of the 8 immortals in Hindu religion. He is an avesha avatar, the one who takes spiritual possession on other with his special power.
Like other avatars of Lord Vishnu, Parshuram appears at the time when evil tries to prevail earth.
Vibhishana, the younger brother of demon king of Lanka,‘Ravana’. He comes from a rakshasa family (demon family) but was a nobleman who advised Ravana to release Maa Sita, who was kidnapped. He insisted Ravana to return Sita to her husband, Lord Rama, but his advice was not entertained. Eventually, he left Lanka to join Rama’s army.
With his knowledge and support, Rama defeated Ravana and crowned Vibhishana as the King.
When Vibhishana became the king of Lanka, he ruled the country with peace and prosperity following the path of Dharma.
During the end of Rama avatar, Lord Vishnu directed Vibhishana to stay on earth and maintain and guide people to the path of dharma. Hence, he is counted to be one of the 8 immortals in Hindu religion.
Pavanputra(Wind-God son) Hanuman was born to Anjana and Kesari.
According to ancient legends, Anjana and Kesari long devotions and prayers towards Shiva brought them to have Hanuman as their son. The story goes like while Anjana and Kesari were worshipping Shiva, the king Dasaratha of Ayodhya performing the ritual of Putrakama Yagna for the same reason.
On finishing the Yagna, Dasharatha received a sacred kheer to be shared by his three wives, Kausalya, Kaikeyi, and Sumitra. By the grace of God, a kite snatched a splinter of that kheer and it fell down while the kite was flying over the forest. Vayudev (Wind God) brought that splinter to Anjana, which she consumed and Hanuman was born as a result.
Hanuman is one of the major characters of Ramayana meets Lord Rama in the last year of latter’s 14 years exile. Hanuman helped Rama to defeat Lanka King Ravana, who kidnapped Rama’s wife Sita.
Hanuman is pictured as the devotee of Lord Rama and Maa Sita. The story follows during the last age of Rama, Hanuman was blessed with immortality.
Vyas, the author of legendary epic Mahabharata and the holy book Shrimad Bhagavatam is a great scholar and Hindu scriptwriter. He is among the 8 immortals in Hindu religion who is a prime example of knowledge and wisdom.
Many believe that Vyasa is Chiranjivins (immortals). A festival in India is dedicated to him, named Guru Purnima on account of his birthday.
Ashwatthama or Drauni, son of Guru Dronacharya, is a mighty Maharathi, who fought from the Kaurava side in the battle of Kurukshetra against Pandavas. He is among the eleven Rudras avatar and also one of the seven avatars of Chiranjivi.
Born as Chiranjivi, it is believed that he has a gem on his forehead which gives him the power to take control over all living beings except humans. It also protected him from thirst, hunger, and tiredness.
The tales say that during the Mahabharata war, on the night after the conquest of Duryodhana, Ashwatthama was terrified and twitchy. He made up a plan to attack Pandavas camp during the nightfall. With his desire, he affected a large part of Pandavas army by massacring them.
The next day when Lord Krishna and Arjuna came to know about it, they searched for Ashwathama. The fierce fight resumed again, with both Ashwatthama and arjuna drawing Brahmaastra at each other. Vyasa was aware of the power of it and asked them to revoke it.
Arjun learned the words of Vyasa and retract his Astra, while Ashwatthama diverted it towards the womb of Uttara, where the only lineage of Pandavas was living. Lord Krishna protected the baby from it but he cursed Aswastthama with 3000 years of sufferings.
He was asked to give away the gem on his forehead and he will be wandering around in the forest with puss and blood coming out of his body.
It is believed that he is one of the 8 immortals in Hindu religion and still there roving around with incurable diseases.
Known as one of the most important characters in Indian epic Mahabharata, Kripacharya is the true embodiment of impartiality. He is one among the immortals in Hindu religion and the boon was bestowed upon him by Lord Krishna. Kripacharya is placed even above Dronacharya in the list of Hindu immortals because of his virtues,
Kripacharya is placed even above Dronacharya in the conference of immortality because of his virtues, righteousness, and impartiality. It is because of his quality to remain calm in any stressful condition that he stands out from the rest of the immortals. As stated in Mahabharata, Kripacharya was also capable to manage 60,000 in
As stated in Mahabharata, Kripacharya was also capable to manage 60,000 in the battlefield.
– Prepared by Abhishek Biswas of NewsGram Twitter: @Writing_desire
Author Devdutt Pattnaik’s take on the sublimity of Hanuman Chalisa
Hanuman Chalisa as the most powerful expression of Hinduism
July 17, 2017: Some believe Hanuman, the name almost a personalization of strength and tenacity is the incarnation of Lord Shiva. Hanuman Chalisais a devotional hymn dedicated to Bajrang Bali by the Great Indian poet, philosopher and saint Shri Goswami Tulsidas. Written in Awadhi, it is the most powerful expression of the essence of Hinduism. It consists of 40 verses applauding the mighty and devoted Hanuman Ji.
Hanuman has attained immortality for his love and devotion of Lord Sri Ram. His name is intrinsically knitted with the glory and honour of Ram. The verses encompass birth, adventures, duty and glory, to the ideas of death and rebirth writes Devdutt Pattanaik.
“I have always avoided the academic approach, as scholars are too busy seeking “the” truth while I am interested in expanding “my” truth”. Pattnaik reaches out for a deeper significance of the self.
Pattanaik opinionates that, in Ramayana, Ram exemplifies dharma. Ravana stands for adharma. Hanumanji chooses dharma over adharma. Good over evil and chaos. In the north are the humans (nara) in Ayodhya, led by sages (Rishis), discover their divine potential (Brahmana), which is the essence of Vedic wisdom. In the south, beyond the sea, on the island of Lanka are the demons (rakshasas) led by Ravana, son of a Rishi (Vaishrava, son of Pulastya), who uses Vedic knowledge for power, and fails to internalize Vedic wisdom. In between, live the monkeys (vanaras).
Pattanaik writes that words like “north” and “south” in the Ramayana should be read metaphorically, because Vedic thought is all about the mind, and seeks to apprise how we ‘see’ the world. The characters Ram, Ravana and Hanuman act as metaphors. The Ramayana takes place in the landscape of our mind. Ram is a manifestation of Dharma. Similarly, Ravana stands for adharma. Hanuman, from amongst all the monkeys, makes the journey towards Ram. The Rishis whom Ram preserve make their journey from north to empower and enlighten the hungry and the weak. Ram of Ayodhya encounters vanars or monkey people while journeying towards the north in Kishkinda. Ram of Ayodhya moves south where he encounters vanars or monkey people in Kishkinda (Deccan plateau) and then rakshasas in the far south.
“The hungry and the frightened seek to combat and conquest, hence Vijay — victory where someone is defeated. The wise seek a different kind of victory, Jai — where no one is defeated, where the self is able to conquer its own hunger and fear to acknowledge, appreciate, even accommodate the other. Both Jai and Vijay seem to mean the same thing, “hail” or “victory”, but there is a nuance in the meaning, the preference for internal victory in the case of Jai over external victory in the case of Vijay. This Jai is what we want for Hanuman, and from Hanuman, as we read the Hanuman Chalisa.” (book extract)
In the book “My Hanuman Chalisa”, Pattanaik seeks to demystify the aura that shrouds the ancient chant for the readers. To make it accessible to the contemporary readers of the age.
– prepared by Puja Sinha of NewsGram. Twitter @pujas1994