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What happens to living beings after death in the water?

What happens to the Living beings who live in the ocean and die there, or other beings that die in the ocean?

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Living Beings who die near water
After life of living beings who die near sea shore or in water. Pixabay
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– By Dr. Bharti Raizada

June 17, 2017: A couple of days back, I was walking on the beach, and a question came to my mind: What happens to living beings that die in the ocean? Living beings who live in the ocean and die there, or other beings that die in the ocean (for example if a plane crashes in an ocean, or a ship sinks or a wave takes someone with it, etc). I did some research and found this:

If a living being dies on land and is not burnt or buried, then either scavenger eat the body, or it is decomposed, or it becomes a fossil. Similarly, when a living body dies in the ocean, it is either scavenged, decomposed or becomes a fossil.

At the ocean floor, dead bodies become food for deep-sea animals. First, there is a stage of mobile scavenging in which scavengers eat the body. Then there is an enrichment opportunist stage, in which small organisms live inside remains of the body, and finally, there is the sulpho philic stage, in which hydrogen sulfide emitting bacteria help feed chemotrophic organisms.

If the dead body is quickly covered by sediment and left undisturbed, it becomes a fossil. How fast a body becomes decomposed or scavenged depends on various factors: oxygen level, temperature, depth, light, speed of sinking, etc.

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Some interesting words related to this topic are:

Detritivore is an organism that feeds on dead or decomposing organic matter. Taphonomy is the study of the processes that affect animal and plant remains as they become fossilized. A taphonomist is the person who does this study.

Chemotropism is the orientation of cells or organisms in relation to chemical stimuli.

This is all I have found. Please share your opinion on what you think, or if you have any additional relevant information.


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8,000 New Combinations Identified to Slow Down Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

The drug combinations have been tested in only a laboratory setting and are at least years away from being evaluated as possible treatments for people

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Antibiotic
Health organisations across the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics. Pixabay

Biologists have identified over 8,000 new combinations of antibiotics that are surprisingly more effective at killing harmful bacteria than the prevailing ones.

Scientists have traditionally believed that combining more than two drugs to fight harmful bacteria would yield diminishing returns.

The prevailing theory is that the incremental benefits of combining three or more drugs would be too small to matter, or that the interactions among the drugs would cause their benefits to cancel one another out.

However, the study discovered over 8,000 combinations of four and five existing medications that are effective, a finding that could be a major step toward protecting public health at a time when pathogens and common infections are increasingly becoming resistant to antibiotics, the researchers said.

“I was blown away by how many effective combinations there are as we increased the number of drugs,” said Van Savage, the Professor at the University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA).

“People may think they know how drug combinations will interact, but they really don’t.”

For the study, reported in the journal npj Systems Biology and Applications, the team looked at eight common antibiotics and analysed how every possible four to five drug combination, including with varying dosages, worked against E-coli.

Bacteria
Bacteria, Pixabay

The combinations were effective because individual medications have different means of targeting E. coli.

“Some drugs attack the cell walls, others attack the DNA inside,” Savage said. “It’s like attacking a castle or fortress. Combining different methods of attacking may be more effective than just a single approach.”

“There is a tradition of using just one drug, maybe two,” said Pamela Yeh, Assistant Professor at the UCLA.

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“We’re offering an alternative that looks very promising. We shouldn’t limit ourselves to just single drugs or two-drug combinations in our medical toolbox.

“We expect several of these combinations, or more, will work much better than existing antibiotics,” Yeh added.

However, Yeh noted that although the results are very promising, the drug combinations have been tested in only a laboratory setting and are at least years away from being evaluated as possible treatments for people. (IANS)