Thursday February 21, 2019

Why More than 580 Million People in India Have Poor Healthcare?

The maternal mortality ratio -- deaths of mothers per 100,000 births -- in these states is 32 per cent higher (244) than the national average (167)

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Healthcare in India. Pixabay
  • India’s average spending on health, as a proportion of GDP, is already the lowest among BRICS nations
  • It accounts for 70 percent of the country’s infant deaths, 75 percent of under-five deaths and 62 per cent of maternal deaths

July 07, 2017: Nine of India’s poorest states — home to 581 million or 48 percent of the population — account for 70 percent of the country’s infant deaths, 75 percent of under-five deaths and 62 per cent of maternal deaths, but do not spend even the money they have set aside for healthcare, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of 2017 Reserve Bank of India data on state budgets.

The data also reveal:

— The maternal mortality ratio — deaths of mothers per 100,000 births — in these states is 32 percent higher (244) than the national average (167).

— 38 per cent and 40 per cent children in these states are underweight (low weight-for-age) and stunted (low height-for-age), respectively, higher than the national average of 36 per cent and 38 per cent, respectively, according to 2015-16 national health data, the latest available.

— Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan — with 372 million people, more than the combined populations of US, Australia, Sweden, and Greece –together contribute to about 58 percent of all child deaths in India.

The nine poorest large states — in official jargon called “high-focus”, a term that implies they need special attention — spent an average of 4.7 percent of their social sector expenditure on public health care and family welfare annually, marginally less than the national average of 4.8 percent. Social sector expenditure includes water supply and sanitation, housing and urban development.

India’s average spending on health, as a proportion of GDP, is already the lowest among BRICS nations.

The “high-focus” states are Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Assam.

“In 2005, it was observed by (the) Government of India that some states were performing poorly in various indicators,” Avani Kapur, Senior Researcher, Accountability Initiative, an advocacy, told IndiaSpend. “So, these states were clubbed together as high-focus states and additional resources were given to improve those indicators.”

ALSO READ: “Dual-Disease Burden”? India’s Great Healthcare Challenge and Opportunity 

Of the nine poorest states, Rajasthan spent the highest (5.6 percent) and Bihar the lowest (3.8 percent) proportion of aggregate expenditure on public health care and family welfare, according to the RBI data on 2014-15 actual spending, lower than the budgeted 4.1 percent for Bihar and 6.6 per cent for Rajasthan.

Seven of the nine “high-focus” states report such underspending.

“High focus states allocate large amounts to social sector to improve their indicators but in reality, they spend only a small amount, compared to what is allotted,” Kapur said. “Hence, it is necessary to consider actual accounts in order to know the proper outcomes.”

So, while some “high-focus” states spent less money than set aside by their budgets, other states outspent — by proportion as ratio to aggregate expenditure — other larger states on healthcare and family welfare, but that had no relation to their healthcare indicators.

For instance, Rajasthan (68.6 million people) reported an MMR of 244 deaths per 100,000 births in 2011-13, the second lowest in India and worse off than Bangladesh and Nepal, both poorer countries, by per capita income. In contrast, Andhra Pradesh (84.6 million people), another big state, spent 4.1 per cent of total expenditure on public healthcare and family welfare but reported an MMR of 92, according to government data.

Since 2008, Rajasthan increased its spending by 0.8 per cent and its MMR decreased 23 per cent while Andhra Pradesh’s spending increased by 0.5 per cent and MMR decreased 31 per cent.

Assam, which spends 4.2 per cent of its total expenditure on health and has 31.2 million people, has an MMR of 300 deaths per 100,000 births — comparable to Rwanda and Sudan — while Kerala, which spends 5.3 per cent on 33.4 million, reported an MMR of 61, comparable to Sri Lanka and Poland.

Madhya Pradesh, which reported an infant mortality rate (IMR) — deaths per 1,000 live births — of 51 in 2015-16, spends 4.3 per cent of total expenditure on healthcare (against the budgeted 5 per cent) and is worse off than some of the world’s poorest countries, such as the Gambia and Ethiopia.

In the nine “high-focus” states, 72.6 per cent of all births were in healthcare institutions, a steady improvement but below the national average of 78.9 per cent, according to the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) data, the latest available.

Promoting community-based education on improved maternal and newborn care, and home-based treatment for newborn infections could enhance child survival in the “high- focus” states “significantly”, said a 2012 PLOS-ONE study. (IANS)

Next Story

New Medicine That Could Replace Insulin Injections

The tip of the needle is made of nearly 100 per cent compressed, freeze-dried insulin. 

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The tip of the needle is made of nearly 100 per cent compressed, freeze-dried insulin. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a drug capsule that could be used to deliver oral doses of insulin, potentially replacing injections for patients with Type-2 diabetes, says a new study.

About the size of a blueberry, the capsule contains a single and small needle made of compressed insulin, which is injected after the capsule reaches the stomach.

The study showed that the capsule could deliver enough insulin to lower blood sugar to levels comparable to those produced by injections given through skin. They also demonstrated that the device can be adapted to deliver other protein drugs.

diabities
About the size of a blueberry, the capsule contains a single and small needle made of compressed insulin, which is injected after the capsule reaches the stomach. VOA

“We are really hopeful that this new type of capsule could someday help diabetic patients and perhaps anyone who requires therapies that can now only be given by injection or infusion,” said Robert Langer, Professor at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research in Britain.

The tip of the needle is made of nearly 100 per cent compressed, freeze-dried insulin.

When the capsule is swallowed, water in the stomach dissolves the sugar disk, releasing the spring and injecting the needle into the stomach wall.

The stomach wall has no pain receptors, so the patients would not be able to feel the prick of the injection. To ensure that the drug is injected into the stomach wall, the researchers designed their system so that no matter how the capsule lands in the stomach, it can orient itself so the needle is in contact with the lining of the stomach.

The findings, published in the journal Science, showed that the researchers could successfully deliver up to 300 micrograms of insulin.

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The type of drug delivery could be useful for any protein drug that normally has to be injected, such as immunosuppressants used to treat rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease and may also work for nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, according to the researchers. Pixabay

More recently, they have been able to increase the dose to 5 milligrams, which is comparable to the amount that a patient with Type-2 diabetes would need to inject.

Also Read: A New Hope for Acute Liver Failure Patients

Furthermore, no adverse effects from the capsule was found, which is made from biodegradable polymer and stainless steel components.

Importantly, this type of drug delivery could be useful for any protein drug that normally has to be injected, such as immunosuppressants used to treat rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease and may also work for nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, according to the researchers. (IANS)