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By Rituparna Chakrobarty
Kanpur, a city once known as the Manchester of East, now fights hard for its own existence. All the cotton mills, the backbone of the city’s traditional economy, have been wiped out and the remaining industries are in their last stages of survival.
But as every cloud has a silver lining, the city is now creating its new identity as a leather city along with the soap industries and hosiery industries blossoming within the city.
History of Kanpur
The city was founded by Raja Kanti Deo of Prayag in 1207 and was called Kohna. It was established on the banks of river Ganga over an area of 605km square. Later it was renamed Kanpur. The first mention of Kanpur was recorded in 1579 during the reign of Sher Shah Suri. By the time of 1801, the European businessmen realized the importance of the site and started establishing themselves there. Kanpur was one of the main centers of Industrial Revolution in India. It later became one of the most important military stations during the colonial rule. Presently it is the 5th largest city in country and counted as 7th largest city in the world.
Manchester of East
Like Manchester in England, Kanpur spearheaded the Industrial Revolution in India with its cotton mills. Around 19th Century, Sir John Burney Alllens established a group of industries. National Textile Corporation (NTC) and British India Corporation (BIC) by jointly combining nine textile industries viz: Swadeshi Cotton Mill, Allign Mill-I , Allign Mill-II, Kanpur textile, Meur Textile, Arthan Mill, Lal imli mill and Laxmi Ratan Cotton mill. As most of the raw material came from West Bengal and Surat, for easier accessibility the first tram facility was provided in the city. In the beginning of 20th Century, Lala Kamlapat laid the stone of JK cotton mills and JK Iron etc. The British added another feather in its crown by establishing a number of factories like: Hinduatan Aeronautics Limited, Indian ordnance factories.
Failure of the cotton mills
The condition of cotton mills started deteriorating after independence, as the Government of India did not show serious concern about the smooth running of the mills in Kanpur. Other than this, the internal politics of laborers doomed the functioning of the mills to a halt. The unavailability of funds, the communication gap between the laborers and management also led to the winding up of the mills. The machinery too was not upgraded with time.
The privatization of industries is helping the city to gain its lost glory and to boost up its economy. Kanpur has emerged as one of the largest exporters of leather goods creating a new identity for itself. In order to further promote small scale industries, Uttar Pradesh state’s Industrial Development Corporation(UPSIDC) and Cooperative societies have come forward. Approximately 6500 small scale industries have been set up in the state. Public sector units are also outsourcing the machinery parts to the engineering sectors for their production; hence the engineering sector is also mushrooming in Kanpur.
Kanpur faces an economic fracture due to the lack of political unity. The absence of strong budget by the state or the central government is hampering the development of the city. Despite this, the people of Kanpur are rising above all odds and trying to develop their city with themselves, but without proper Government support, it’s still a dream which will take a very long time to materialize into reality.
The symbol of Swastika is known to signify peace, prosperity, and good fortune in the religious cultures of Eurasia. In fact, this symbol is considered very significant in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. But, at the same time, it has become one of the most misunderstood religious symbols and has been globally banned in many countries.
The reason why the symbol of Swastika is banned in many countries is because of its association with Adolf Hitler's extreme political ideology, Nazism, as Swastika as its official symbol.
Austria, France, Latvia, Spain, Germany, and Russia are amongst the many countries that have banned the display and use of the Swastika.
Moreover, last week Victoria in Australia is preparing to become the first-ever state to ban the public display of the Swastika. This is a step towards an expansion of anti-vilification laws in the state.
Representation of the Swastika on the flag of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Movement.Photo by Flickr.
Now, we must know and understand what went wrong with this symbol, which is sacred and signifies all-good things.
For a very, very long time, in India, the Swastika is the first emblem that is worshipped or even drawn before any sacred and auspicious ceremonies as this symbol in Sanskrit represents 'well-being'. But, the Swastika lost all its credibility when it was wrongfully used by Adolf Hitler.
In fact, it is believed that if this symbol is worshipped properly, then it gives positive results. But if it is abused, then it gives negative results. So, when Adolf Hitler rotated the Swastika at 45 degrees, it slowly and steadily brought misery not only to Adolf Hitler and his theory of Nazism but also to all the people who were associated with him.
Therefore, in order to give the kind of respect and credibility which the Swastika deserves, World Interfaith Harmony Week which was held in New York in February this year, interfaith groups appealed to the United Nations to recognize and acknowledge the Swastika as an important and peaceful symbol. In fact, they also differentiated it from the Hakenkreuz or "Hooked Cross" of Adolf Hitler.
India celebrated a historic day on August 7, as 23-year-old Neeraj Chopra became the first Indian to win an Olympic gold medal in athletics. In the men's javelin throw event, he achieved his greatest triumph, throwing the javelin 87.58 meters on his second try.
Neeraj Chopra was born on December 24, 1997, in Khandra village in Haryana's Panipat district. He grew up in a Haryanavi family of farmers. He is the brother of two sisters. He graduated from Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College in Chandigarh and is now enrolled in Lovely Professional University in Jalandhar, Punjab, pursuing a Bachelor of Arts degree. Chopra was bullied due to his obesity as a kid, which prompted his father to enroll him in a nearby gym. He then joined a gym in Panipat, where Jaiveer Choudhary, a javelin thrower, noticed his potential and coached him. When the 13-year-old Chopra finished training under Jaiveer for a year, he was enrolled at the Tau Devi Lal Sports Complex in Panchkula, where he began training under coach Naseem Ahmed.
In 2018, he broke the world record in the javelin throw and became India's first-ever gold medalist in the javelin throw. He is also a laureate of the Arjuna Award for 2018. | Wikimedia Commons
Chopra's first international medal came in 2014, as he took home a silver medal at the Youth Olympic Qualification Tournament in Bangkok. In 2015, he set a world record in the junior category of 81.04 meters in the 2015 All India Inter-University Athletics Meet.
Since emerging into the public eye with a historic gold medal at the junior world championships in 2016, he has maintained a high level of performance, setting an Under-20 world record of 86.48m, which still stands. Gold medals in both the 2018 Commonwealth Games and the 2018 Asian Games are among his other accomplishments, including a first-place in the 2017 Asian Championships. In 2018, he broke the world record in the javelin throw and became India's first-ever gold medalist in the javelin throw. He is also a laureate of the Arjuna Award for 2018.
Chopra has also had his share of bad events in life. In 2019, he underwent surgery on the elbow of his right throwing arm, which kept him out of the game for almost a year. However, he returned more robust than ever. In November 2019, he went to South Africa to train from Klaus Bartoneitz. He spent the following year in India training at the NIS Patiala because of the COVID-19 pandemic. He was allowed to go to France with his coach after weeks of trying to get a travel visa.
Neeraj Chopra made history in the 2020 Tokyo Olympics by becoming the first Indian to win a gold medal in athletics. Also, it is worth mentioning that after Abhinav Bindra, Chopra is only the second Indian to win an individual gold medal.
Keywords: Neeraj Chopra, Olympics, Tokyo2020, Gold medal, javelin, India, Haryana
The emergence of the Industrial Revolution in Victorian England brought with it many apprehensions and fears that translated into a new genre in literature: the gothic. Today, the idea of the gothic does not have to much with literature as much as it is associated with fashion.
The Victorians began to wear black more often during the Industrial Revolution to hide the stains of soot on their clothes. Many of the working class were employed in factories. They were newly introduced to technology, the idea of coal as fuel, and the working of machines to serve a certain purpose. This kind of work was hard and messy. Wearing light colours burdened the tired folk when the stubborn stains did not get washed away.
The steam engine was invented to make locomotion easier for the masses, but it brought fear to the people. They had led quiet and simple lives till now, and suddenly their world was infiltrated with loud noises and smoke. Dark places became synonymous with evil deeds and mysteries. It was from this time that horror gained a place in the imaginations of people and artists.
A man sporting gothic clothes and shock coloured hair Image source: wikimedia commons
The gothics of today are those who have held on to these practices. There is no need to fear smoke and noise anymore, but the goths wear black clothes all the time, paint their skin a pale shade, to contrast their clothes, and wear bright shades of red. The traditional gothics decorated themselves with jewellery bearing religious significances, as the belief in Dracula and vampires emerged in the Victorian period. Today, it is a trend to wear studded crosses, or crosses made of black metal either as neck chokers, or earrings.
Modern goths also wear bright monotones to show their patronage of a certain style or order of the goths. They can be seen in neon shades of green, pink, and yellow, often sporting piercings, and matching hair. Their tastes are metallic, and they have an uncanny love for tattoos.
Designers consistently include gothic tastes and styles in their clothing lines to create inclusivity for this subculture. Being gothic, or identifying with them is somewhat a concern even in today's society, and such people are often stigmatised to the extent that it is considered a mental illness associated with the dark arts. The phenomenon is mostly observed in teenagers, and often phases out when they reach adulthood, depending on their sphere of influence.
Keywords: Gothic, Fashion, Victorian, Black, Jewellery