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Books of Women Authors Are Priced Less as Compared to Their Male Counterparts

The authors analysed the gender of each author by matching names to lists of male and female names, and cross-referenced with information about price, genre and publication.

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A study of more than 2 million books has revealed that titles by female authors are on an average sold at just over half the price of those written by men, the media reported.
Books, pexels

A study of more than 2 million books has revealed that titles by female authors are on an average sold at just over half the price of those written by men, the media reported.

The research, by sociologist Dana Beth Weinberg and mathematician Adam Kapelner of Queens College-CUNY, involved titles published in North America between 2002 and 2012, the Guardian reported on Monday.

The authors analysed the gender of each author by matching names to lists of male and female names, and cross-referenced with information about price, genre and publication.

The authors analysed the gender of each author by matching names to lists of male and female names, and cross-referenced with information about price, genre and publication.
Representational Image, Pixabay

Books by women released by mainstream publishers, they found, were priced on an average 45% lower than books by men. In a paper published in the journal PLOS One, the academics point out that there are more female authors writing in genres such as romance, which are generally priced lower than male-dominated genres such as science.

But even after accounting for these differences, they found that prices for authors with identifiably female names were 9 per cent lower than for male authors.

“Our study looked at all three types of discrimination – the gender segregation by book genre, the different value placed on these genres, and then finally the difference within the genres,” Weinberg said.

“We expected that taking account of the first two discrimination patterns would knock out any remaining differences in prices within genre.

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“The within-genre price difference (9 per cent for traditionally published titles) was extremely robust across various analyses. In retrospect, perhaps we should not have been surprised about this difference, since this pattern also mirrors the wage inequality within jobs that we see in the larger economy.”

The study also looked at self-published, or independently published, titles over the same period, finding that when authors priced books themselves, there was far greater equality between the genders – although there was still a price gap of 7 per cent, the Guardian reported.

Inequality was also seen within genres for self-publishers, at 4 per cent compared with the 9 per cent for traditionally published books. (IANS)

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Women Are More Prone To Drug Addiction Than Men

Women represent a particularly vulnerable population, with higher rates of addiction following exposure to drugs, said researcher Erin Calipari, Assistant Professor at Vanderbilt University in the US.

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Women represent a particularly vulnerable population, with higher rates of addiction following exposure to drugs, said researcher Erin Calipari, Assistant Professor at Vanderbilt University in the US. Pixabay

Women’s hormonal cycles may not only make them prone to drug addiction but are also affected by triggers that lead to relapse, new research has found.

When fertility-related hormone levels are high, females learn faster, make stronger associations to cues in their environment and are more inclined to seek rewards, according to a study published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology.

Women represent a particularly vulnerable population, with higher rates of addiction following exposure to drugs, said researcher Erin Calipari, Assistant Professor at Vanderbilt University in the US.

woman

Females were willing to “pay” more in the presence of these cues to get cocaine, the findings showed. Pixabay

“Women becoming addicted to drugs may be a fundamentally different process than men,” she said. “It’s important to understand this, because it’s the first step in developing treatments that are actually effective,” Calipari said.

The next step, she said, would be to figure out specifics of how hormonal shifts affect women’s brains and, ultimately, develop medications that could help override those.

In this study, male and female rats were allowed to dose themselves with cocaine by pushing a lever, with a light set up to come on during dosing.

That’s similar to the environmental cues, such as drug paraphernalia, present when humans are taking drugs.

women
The results are transferable to humans through behavioural economic analysis, which uses a complicated mathematical equation with values for the most and least a subject will do to get a payoff, said the study. Pixabay

When hormone levels were high, female rats made stronger associations with the light and were more likely to keep pushing the lever as much as it took to get any amount of cocaine.

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Females were willing to “pay” more in the presence of these cues to get cocaine, the findings showed.

The results are transferable to humans through behavioural economic analysis, which uses a complicated mathematical equation with values for the most and least a subject will do to get a payoff, said the study. (IANS)