Wednesday January 22, 2020

Women More Likely to Die Because of Heart Failure Than Men, Says Study

Men and women have different biologies and this results in different types of the same heart diseases

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Heart Failure
The researchers explain that many of the differences between woman and men when it comes to heart Failure are connected to the sex hormone, oestrogen. Pixabay

Researchers have found that more women than men die of heart failure and 50 per cent of the heart failure cases among women are caused by having a heart attack, which can be treated with modern methods.

According to the study, 50 per cent of women experiencing heart failure and the cause is generally related to having untreated high blood pressure levels over time, which leads to progressive stiffening of the heart. There is no effective treatment for this kind of heart failure yet, the study published in the journal Nature Medicine.

“Men and women have different biologies and this results in different types of the same heart diseases. It is about time to recognise these differences,” said study researcher Eva Gerdts from University of Bergen in Norway.

For the study, the researchers have compared common risk factors for heart diseases and how these affect men and women differently. They have, among other things, focused on the sex differences in the effect of obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes.

According to The World Health Organization (WHO), 11 per cent women and 15 per cent men are obese (BMI over 30 kg/ m2) globally. In Norway, one in five adults are obese.

“If we see this from a life span perspective, we can see that obesity increases with age, and that this trend is greater for women than men. Obesity increases the risk of having high blood pressure by a factor of three. This, in turn, increases the risk of heart disease,” Gerdts said.

According to the researchers, obesity also increases the risk of diabetes 2. A woman with diabetes has a much higher relative risk of heart complications and death than a man. “We know that women with diabetes 2 are usually obese and some of the fat is stored in the heart, which makes it more vulnerable for disease,” Gerdts added.

The researchers explain that many of the differences between woman and men when it comes to heart disease are connected to the sex hormone, oestrogen. The hormone prevents the formation of connective tissue in the heart, which makes it harder for the heart to pump blood. In men the effects are just the opposite.

Heart Failure
Researchers have found that more women than men die of heart failure and 50 per cent of the heart failure cases among women are caused by having a heart attack, which can be treated with modern methods. Pixabay

“We see that obese men store oestrogen in their fat cells in the abdomen, which has a bad effect on the heart,” Gerdts said. After menopause, women lose the oestrogen advantage. Their arteries become stiffer and more vulnerable for diseases, the study said.

“We think that this is part of the explanation for why high blood pressure seems to indicate higher risk of heart disease amongst women,” Gerdts said. In addition, smoking is also a part of the risk scenario for women.

ALSO READ: Cancer Drugs Can Be Used To Treat Pulmonary Diseases: Study

“For women, the effects of risk factors such as smoking, obesity and high blood pressure increase after menopause,” Gerdts concluded. (IANS)

Next Story

Drugs That Treat Arthritis in Dogs Can Kill Cancer Cells: Study

Drug for arthritis in dogs can fight cancer in people

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Cancer Cells
Drugs for diabetes, inflammation, alcoholism and even for treating arthritis in dogs can also kill cancer cells. Pixabay

Drugs for diabetes, inflammation, alcoholism — and even for treating arthritis in dogs — can also kill cancer cells in the lab, according to a new health news and study.

The researchers systematically analysed thousands of already developed drug compounds and found nearly 50 that have previously unrecognised anti-cancer activity.

The findings, which also revealed novel drug mechanisms and targets, suggest a possible way to accelerate the development of new cancer drugs or repurpose existing drugs to treat cancer.

“We thought we’d be lucky if we found even a single compound with anti-cancer properties, but we were surprised to find so many,” said study researcher Todd Golub from Harvard University in the US.

Cancer Cells
Most of the non-oncology drugs that killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously unrecognized molecular target. (Representational Image). Pixabay

The study, published in the journal Nature Cancer, yet to employ the Broad’s Drug Repurposing Hub, a collection that currently comprises more than 6,000 existing drugs and compounds that are either FDA-approved or have been proven safe in clinical trials (at the time of the study, the Hub contained 4,518 drugs).

Historically, scientists have stumbled upon new uses for a few existing medicines, such as the discovery of aspirin’s cardiovascular benefits.

“We created the repurposing hub to enable researchers to make these kinds of serendipitous discoveries in a more deliberate way,” said study first author Steven Corsello, from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and founder of the Drug Repurposing Hub.

The researchers tested all the compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cell lines from the Broad’s Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE).

Using a molecular barcoding method known as PRISM, which was developed in the Golub lab, the researchers tagged each cell line with a DNA barcode, allowing them to pool several cell lines together in each dish and more quickly conduct a larger experiment.

The team then exposed each pool of barcoded cells to a single compound from the repurposing library, and measured the survival rate of the cancer cells.

They found nearly 50 non-cancer drugs — including those initially developed to lower cholesterol or reduce inflammation — that killed some cancer cells while leaving others alone.

Some of the compounds killed cancer cells in unexpected ways.

“Most existing cancer drugs work by blocking proteins, but we’re finding that compounds can act through other mechanisms,” said Corsello.

Cancer Cells
The researchers tested all the compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cells lines from the Broad’s Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. (Representational Image). Pixabay

Some of the four-dozen drugs researchers identified appear to act not by inhibiting a protein but by activating a protein or stabilising a protein-protein interaction.

For example, the team found that nearly a dozen non-oncology drugs killed cancer cells that express a protein called PDE3A by stabilising the interaction between PDE3A and another protein called SLFN12 — a previously unknown mechanism for some of these drugs.

These unexpected drug mechanisms were easier to find using the study’s cell-based approach, which measures cell survival, than through traditional non-cell-based high-throughput screening methods, Corsello said.

Also Read- Mothers Find Gaps in Accessibility of Breastfeeding Resources at Work: Research

Most of the non-oncology drugs that killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously unrecognized molecular target.

For example, the anti-inflammatory drug tepoxalin, originally developed for use in people but approved for treating osteoarthritis in dogs, killed cancer cells by hitting an unknown target in cells that overexpress the protein MDR1, which commonly drives resistance to chemotherapy drugs. (IANS)