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Even before the emergence of the new coronavirus, Africa’s blood supply fell short of demand. The pandemic has increased the deficit, raising risks to people needing treatment for ailments and medical emergencies, health officials say as per COVID-19 Information & Resources.
“The problem that we are seeing is that we have a reduction [in] the number of blood donors during this outbreak because people are afraid to go to blood services,” said Dr. Andre Loua, the World Health Organization’s Africa region technical officer for blood safety.
Along with fears of infection, countries’ restrictions on mobility and trade affect the availability of blood and of reagents, bags and other products needed to draw, test and store it, added Jean-Baptiste Nikiema, the WHO regional adviser for essential medicine, who joined Loua in a Skype interview with VOA last month. “So this is taking us to high risk of shortages of products to test the blood and also to collect the blood. And in the coming months, if the situation is not better, we can get in trouble.”
The WHO hopes to raise awareness of the need for blood and to spur donations globally through Sunday’s commemoration of World Blood Donor Day, an annual event since 2005.
Donation rates generally correspond with national incomes, the WHO says. The median rate is 31.5 per thousand people in high-income countries and 5.0 in low-income countries.
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Most sub-Saharan African countries have made progress in ensuring blood safety and availability since 2013, said Loua and Nikiema, speaking from Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the WHO has a regional office.
Nonetheless, “patients requiring transfusion do not have timely access to safe blood and blood components in the region,” they wrote in a 2019 article co-authored with two other experts.
Transfusions most often are needed by women after childbirth; children who are malnourished, anemic or infected with malaria; victims of trauma or accidents; and patients with sickle cell anemia. More than 1 in 5 people in the region are anemic; the rate climbs to 3 in 5 among children age 5 or younger.
If blood is not replaced, a patient can bleed to death.
In Kenya, the pandemic has almost halved blood donations and created a “challenging” situation, its Health Ministry said in announcing a nationwide blood drive Friday.
Before the onset of COVID-19, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service used to collect at least 450 pints of blood every day, according to Dr. Rashid Aman, the chief administrative secretary. Donations have fallen to roughly 250 pints, “which has caused a major strain on our blood bank.”
In neighboring Ethiopia, home to 108 million people, authorities at the National Blood Bank Service were alarmed by a precipitous drop in donations – from roughly 300 donations a day in the capital, Addis Ababa, to just under 30 after COVID-19’s emergence.
“This left us in great danger,” Yaregal Benti, the bank service’s director, told VOA’s Horn of Africa service. So the blood service recruited Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and other government officials to extend their arms and set an example. That was on April 22.
Two weeks later, donors had significantly increased the nation’s blood reserves, Yaregal said, praising their generosity. “Where there is a shortage of face masks or mechanical ventilators, you can ask or force factories to produce them. But there is no such production for blood.”
Unpaid donors contribute most of the available blood supply in 79 countries, the WHO says, but in 56 countries, patients’ relatives or friends or paid donors contribute the most.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies promotes unpaid donation, Dr. Adeiza Ben Adinoyi, an Africa regional officer, said in an interview. Blood is perishable, with a maximum 32-day shelf life even when refrigerated, so “you need a system of ensuring that the supply chain is adequate at every given point in time.”
Many African countries have weak health systems that have been further compromised by COVID-19. Loua called for more aid not only from donors but also from “developed countries, because we don’t have sufficient resources.”
Loua also noted challenges involving convalescent plasma, drawn from recovered COVID-19 patients and used as an experimental therapy to treat new cases. In sub-Saharan Africa, he said, most countries’ national blood services have “insufficient capability … to collect, process and store convalescent plasma in a quality manner.”
Since 2004, the United States has supported the supply safety programming in more than a dozen sub-Saharan African countries as part of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. It has allocated $6.9 billion for the current fiscal year alone, though the White House has proposed reducing that to $4.4 billion in 2021.
In October, the program cut off funds for Kenya’s National Blood Transfusion Service as part of its effort to have countries assume more fiscal responsibility, according to Devex, a global development media site. It reported that it had unsuccessfully sought an extension – and that Ethiopia, Tanzania and Swaziland had shifted to covering all blood collection and testing costs as of 2016. (VOA)
Prior to the brutal second wave of the pandemic, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had cautioned civil services probationers against developing the despised "babu mindset". He gave the invaluable piece of advice while addressing civil services probies at the well-known Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie via video-conferencing. He also outlined the keystone mantra of "minimum government and maximum governance".
With the recent collapse of the under-construction flyover in Bandra Kurla Complex which injured 14 labourers, it seems like the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has got the PM's keystone mantra all wrong. The recent flyover collapse isn't an isolated incident, in fact, a month ago a similarly bemusing incident took place in the eastern part of the suburbs.
On 1st August 2021, the honourable Chief Minister of Maharashtra Shri. Uddhav Thackeray inaugurated a flyover in the eastern part of the suburbs. In his inaugural speech, he quipped the BMC to smoothen the rough road surface. The BMC swing into action and the surface of the flyover was swiftly re-worked upon. But, instead of smoothening the pre-existing rough surface, the shoddy repair work added to the problem. To top it all off, the BMC added a barrage of speed breakers and rumbler strips on the bridge.
The shoddy repair work combined with a plethora of speed breakers caused long congestions on the Mankhurd-Ghatkopher stretch, ultimately killing the purpose of building the bridge. Moreover, after numerous accidents of motorbikes skidding on the bridge during the rain and the subsequent death of a rider the bridge was closed for traffic.
The construction of the flyover commenced in February 2016 at an approved cost of ₹500 crores. The project was slated to be delivered in January 2019 but was delayed multiple times. The BMC had also made a design change in the flyover by adding a connector to the Deonar dumping ground due to which the construction cost of the flyover was increased to over ₹700 crore. The flyover was expected to bring relief to the traffic on Ghatkopar-Mankhurd Link Road but instead, it added to the existing traffic woes. On a concluding note, the maximum city of Mumbai runs on barely minimum governance, literally.
Keywords: Mumbai, Narendra Modi, Civil Services, Governance.
Along with the undeniable natural beauty, the Kashmir valley has developed a reputation for adventurous activities like trekking, hiking, and river rafting. Kashmir has maintained its charm, allowing us to time-travel into beautiful destinations which make one forget about the stress and worries of life. The hikes in Kashmir offer adventurers to go on a self-discovery trip through nature's lap over the mountains while taking in the breathtaking scenery that surrounds them on their journey. In addition to the hikes, there are many thrilling adventure activities, like rock climbing, rope climbing, etc. Trekking across the region of mountains and lakes will allow you to experience living in the "Paradise on Earth," and you wouldn't want to return to your regular life after that.
The following are some of the finest hiking destinations in Kashmir:
#1: Kashmir Great Lakes Trek: You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. In addition to three high-altitude passes and five river valley crossings, this is the only trip in the Himalayas that includes seven alpine lakes, each of which is a stunning shade of green, blue, or turquoise. The extravagance is limitless and breathtakingly stunning every day: infinite blue sky, a larger-than-life backdrop of the Rocky Mountains, colourful meadows overflowing with wildflowers, river crossings are just a few examples of what you will encounter during the trek.
You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. | Photo by prayer flags on Unsplash
#2: Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora Trek: The Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora trek is a one-of-a-kind experience that provides a glimpse into Kashmir's undiscovered regions. Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey that is the perfect experience for anyone looking to get away from the frantic tourist rush. This trek is a fascinating journey that allows nature enthusiasts to bask in the splendour of nature's grandeur. The trek goes over many high mountain passes, some as high as 4000 metres in elevation. The hiking route, in addition to providing breathtaking views of the magnificent Vishansar Lake, provides visitors with the chance to see more than 50 alpine lakes.
Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey. | Photo by YASER NABI MIR on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Top 10 Beautiful Sights To VIsit In Kashmir
#3: Tral-Narastan-Marsar Trek: The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. The hiking trail passes past a waving saffron field, beautiful meadows, and several streams. The path also crosses the Dachigam National Park, where there is an opportunity to see various animal species. Trekkers may take in spectacular views of the high mountains running parallel to them as they cut and pass through Narastan, a Hindu pilgrimage place.
The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. | Wikimedia Commons
#4: Chhatargul-Mahlish-Gangabal: The journey, which passes through beautiful locations such as Chattargul, Mahlish, Kolsar, and Trunkul, provides a peek into an utterly uninhabited wilderness of Kashmir. There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one trek into the alpine wilderness. Trekkers can also enjoy fishing in the crystal clear lakes, camping, or just seeing towering snow-capped mountains while on their journey.
There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one treks into the alpine wilderness. | Wikimedia Commons
#5: Kolahoi Base Camp Trek: The Kolahoi Base Camp trek in Kashmir has been famous since the early 1900s and has been a goal for many seasoned hikers from across the world. While Srinagar serves as the beginning point for the trip, it is in Aru Valley that the actual hiking begins. The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. The breathtaking sight of the peaks rising into the sky on the horizon of the Pirpanjal and Karakoram ranges is certainly worth capturing. It is considered to be one of the most popular treks in the Kashmir valley.
The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. | Wikimedia Commons
Kashmir's natural splendour, with its beautiful valleys and towering mountains, is really unlike anywhere. Trekking through various valleys and peaks while taking in the scenic beauty is something that always calms the heart and provides us with memories that we will remember for a lifetime.
Keywords: Kashmir, Lakes, Alpine, Hiking, Trekking, Treks, Sonamarg, Gangabal, Kolahoi, Chhatargul, Mahlish, Tral, Narastan, Marsar
The Pitru Paksha starts after the Full Moon day, and this day marks the beginning of the waning phase of the Lunar cycle. This event is roughly of 15-day period, and is of great significance. From this day, rituals like Tarpan or Tarpanam and Shradh are carried out to pay respects to dead relatives and ancestors.
It is believed that from the very first day till the last day, the unhappy souls of the deceased return to the Earth to see their family members. So, in order to ensure that the dead attain Moksha, i.e. to get liberation, family members of these souls quench their thirst and satisfy their hunger by performing the Pind Daan, which includes offering food consisting of cooked rice and black sesame seeds. The literal meaning of Pind Daan is the act of satisfying those who no longer exist physically.
For fifteen days, prayers are offered in temples and rituals are performed to help the souls get free from the cycle of birth, life, and death, and attain salvation.
At the same time, the Pitru Paksha is also an important period for people with Pitru Dosha, which means the curse imposed by the ancestors. Hence, in order to ask forgiveness, people perform Shradh rituals and offer food to the crows, who are considered as living beings that represent the dead. It is believed, if the crow eats the offered food, the ancestors are happy and pleased. But, if the crow doesn't eat the offered food and flies away, the ancestors are not happy.
The event of Pitru Paksha is widely observed by Hindus from all over the world, and they perform prayers and rituals in order to gain their ancestors blessings.