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Most Terrible Water Crisis Ever In History Leaves Millions Of Indians Thirsty

6 percent of GDP is very much dependent on water.

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A woman washes clothes as her daughter bathes in the Yamuna River on a hot day in New Delhi, India, April 24, 2017.
A woman washes clothes as her daughter bathes in the Yamuna River on a hot day in New Delhi, India, April 24, 2017. VOA

Weak infrastructure and a national shortage have made water costly all over India, but Sushila Devi paid a higher price than most. It took the deaths of her husband and son to force authorities to supply it to the slum she calls home.

“They died because of the water problem, nothing else,” said Devi, 40, as she recalled how a brawl over a water tanker carrying clean drinking water in March killed her two relatives and finally prompted the government to drill a tubewell.

“Now things are better. But earlier … the water used to be rusty, we could not even wash our hands or feet with that kind of water,” she told the Thomson Reuters Foundation in Delhi.

India is “suffering from the worst water crisis in its history”, threatening hundreds of millions of lives and jeopardising economic growth, a government think-tank report said in June.

From the northern Himalayas to the sandy, palm-fringed beaches in the south, 600 million people – nearly half India’s population – face acute water shortage, with close to 200,000 dying each year from polluted water.

Residents like Devi queue daily with pipes, jerry cans and buckets in hand for water from tankers – a common lifeline for those without a safe, reliable municipal supply – often involving elbowing, pushing and punching.

On the rare occasions water does flow from taps, it is often dirty, leading to disease, infection, disability and even death, experts say.

“The water was like poison,” said Devi, who still relies on the tanker for drinking water, outside her one-room shanty in the chronically water-stressed Wazirpur area of the capital Delhi.

“It is better now, but still it is not completely drinkable. It is alright for bathing and washing the dishes.”

Water pollution is a major challenge, the report said, with nearly 70 percent of India’s water contaminated, impacting three in four Indians and contributing to 20 percent of the country’s disease burden.

Yet only one-third of its wastewater is currently treated, meaning raw sewage flows into rivers, lakes and ponds – and eventually gets into the groundwater.

“Our surface water is contaminated, our groundwater is contaminated. See, everywhere water is being contaminated because we are not managing our solid waste properly,” said the report’s author Avinash Mishra.
Loss of livelihood

Meanwhile, unchecked extraction by farmers and wealthy residents has caused groundwater levels to plunge to record lows, says the report.

It predicts that 21 major cities, including New Delhi and India’s IT hub of Bengaluru, will run out of groundwater by 2020, affecting 100 million people.

The head of WaterAid India VK Madhavan said the country’s groundwater was now heavily contaminated.

“We are grappling with issues, with areas that have arsenic contamination, fluoride contamination, with salinity, with nitrates,” he said, listing chemicals that have been linked to cancer.

Arsenic and fluoride occur naturally in the groundwater, but become more concentrated as the water becomes scarcer, while nitrates come from fertilisers, pesticides and other industrial waste that has seeped into the supply.

The level of chemicals in the water was so high, he said, that bacterial contamination – the source of water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid – “is in the second order of problems”.

“Poor quality of water – that is loss of livelihood. You fall ill because you don’t have access to safe drinking water, because your water is contaminated.”

Currently, only 70 percent of India’s states treat less than half of their wastewater.
Currently, only 70 percent of India’s states treat less than half of their wastewater. pixabay

“The burden of not having access to safe drinking water, that burden is greatest on the poor and the price is paid by them.”

Frothy lakes and rivers

Crippling water problems could shave 6 percent off India’s gross domestic product, according to the report by the government think-tank, Niti Aayog.

“This 6 percent of GDP is very much dependent on water. Our industry, our food security, everything will be at stake,” said Mishra.

“It is a finite resource. It is not infinite. One day it can (become) extinct,” he said, warning that by 2030 India’s water supply will be half of the demand.

To tackle this crisis, which is predicted to get worse, the government has urged states – responsible for supplying clean water to residents – to prioritise treating waste water to bridge the supply and demand gap and to save lives.

Currently, only 70 percent of India’s states treat less than half of their wastewater.

Every year, Bengaluru and New Delhi make global headlines as their heavily polluted water bodies emit clouds of white toxic froth due to a mix of industrial effluents and domestic garbage dumped into them.

In Bengaluru – once known as the “city of lakes” and now doomed to go dry – the Bellandur Lake bursts into flames often, sending plumes of black smoke into sky.

The Yamuna river that flows through New Delhi can be seen covered under a thick, detergent-like foam on some days.

On other days, faeces, chemicals and ashes from human cremations float on top, forcing passers-by to cover their mouths and noses against the stench.

That does not stop 10-year-old Gauri, who lives in a nearby slum, from jumping in every day.

With no access to water, it is the only way to cool herself down during India’s scorching summers, when temperatures soar to 45 Celsius (113 Fahrenheit).

“There usually is not enough water for us to take a shower, so we come here,” said Gauri, who only gave her first name, as she and her brother splashed around in the filthy river.

Also read: India’s bulging water crisis: Is it too late for us to do something?

“It makes us itchy and sick, but only for some time. We are happy to have this, everyone can use it.” (VOA)

Next Story

Newspaper Hawkers in Delhi Actively Participate in Cleaning of Yamuna River

Though housands of crores have been spent to clean the river, the pollution levels have shown no serious signs of decline

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yamuna river, newspaper hawkers
After collecting all the waste from the river banks, they dump the collected garbage in the dumpers provided by the East Delhi Municipal Corporation. Wikimedia Commons

The black waters of the Yamuna river on its Delhi stretch have been declared unfit for drinking and bathing purposes, but that did not deter 65-year-old newspaper hawker Ashok Upadhyay to do his bit in protecting the river from further pollution.

On the last Sunday of every month, Upadhyay comes to the Chhath ‘ghat’ (steps) of the river near ITO to clear the waste accumulated on the banks. He is joined by about 100 other newspaper hawkers of the city who have taken upon themselves to be the change that they want to see.

Before setting up the ‘Maa Shri Yamuna Seva Samiti’ group of volunteers in October last year, who are also referred to as Friends of Yamuna, Upadhyay, while on his way to the newspaper centre every morning, used to go alone to pick up the trash on the riverside. He also planted saplings near the banks to make it look greener.

Some of his family members and friends started joining him in the cleanliness drive and as the group grew bigger, they decided to devote at least three hours (between 8-11 a.m.) on the last Sunday of every month to the cause.

yamuna river
“It really saddens me to see the conditions of our rivers. People have mistaken our water bodies as garbage dumping areas,” Chaubey lamented. Flickr

“After the death of my mother, I was broken up from the inside. One day I realised that Yamuna Ji is also our Goddess (‘Ma’) and I must take care of it and it is our duty to clean the river,” Upadhyay told IANS. “I felt that my late parents would be happy to see me serving Ma Yamuna. So I started doing the cleaning job at my level. I felt that the river, which we consider our Goddess needs to be saved,” he said.

“We bring tools such as brooms and gloves from our own houses. We also do not want any monetary help from people or from any government. What we actually need is manpower and pure dedication towards cleaning the river,” he added.

After collecting all the waste from the river banks, they dump the collected garbage in the dumpers provided by the East Delhi Municipal Corporation. “We have plans to expand the drive once more people join us. The work on Chhath ghat is just the start and bigger things are coming. It is in our capable hands to make this change,” said B.N. Singh, a member of the group.

According to Asha Chaubey, another member who has joined the cleanliness drive, it is very important for people to come forward and do their bit for the environment. “It really saddens me to see the conditions of our rivers. People have mistaken our water bodies as garbage dumping areas,” Chaubey lamented.

yamuna river, newspaper hawkers
Though housands of crores have been spent to clean the river, the pollution levels have shown no serious signs of decline. Flickr

“With the groundwater depletion in various parts of the country, keeping our rivers clean is the need of the hour and people should start taking it seriously before it is too late,” Chaubey told IANS. The newspaper hawkers are now planning to plant more trees on the banks of the Yamuna and their only appeal to people is not to throw any garbage into the river.

ALSO READ: Delhi Government Gives Nod To a Project to Create Reservoirs in Yamuna Flood Plain

Although the Yamuna river flows only for 54 km through Delhi, from Palla to Badarpur, the 22-km stretch from Wazirabad to Okhla, which is less than 2 per cent of the river length of 1,370 kilometres from Yamunotri to Prayagraj, accounts for about 76 per cent of the pollution level in the river, according to the findings of a committee.

Though housands of crores have been spent to clean the river, the pollution levels have shown no serious signs of decline. The total expenditure incurred on river conservation under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) alone, introduced in 1993, has surpassed Rs 1,500 crore. (IANS)